Battle of Thermopylae - Wikipedia
Xerxes I called Xerxes the Great, was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia . Xerxes was induced by the message of Themistocles ( against the advice of Artemisia of Halicarnassus) to attack the . Thanks to his family connection, Cyrus is brought up in the Persian court after the murder of Zoroaster. The first Persian invasion of Greece, during the Persian Wars, began in BC, and ended It was thus left to his son Xerxes I to lead the second Persian invasion of Greece, beginning in BC. Lives of the Eminent Commanders (Miltiades); Plutarch Parallel Lives (Aristides, Themistocles), On the Malice of Herodotus. The Battle of Artemisium, or Battle of Artemision, was a series of naval engagements over three King Xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, and set out to conquer all of Greece. The Athenian general Themistocles proposed that the Allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae and.
Battle of Artemisium
Siliceous glazed bricks, c. Ironically, since the establishment of democracies had been a key factor in the Ionian Revolt, he replaced the tyrannies with democracies. Diplomacy[ edit ] Perhaps reasoning that the expedition of the previous year may have made his plans for Greece obvious, and weakened the resolve of the Greek cities, Darius turned to diplomacy in BC.
He sent ambassadors to all the Greek city states, asking for " earth and water ", a traditional token of submission. In Athens, however, the ambassadors were put on trial and then executed; in Sparta, they were simply thrown down a well.
The citizens of Aegina had submitted to the Persian ambassadors, and the Athenians, troubled by the possibility of Persia using Aegina as a naval base, asked Sparta to intervene. Datis and Artaphernes' campaign[ edit ] Taking advantage of the chaos in Sparta, which effectively left Athens isolated, Darius decided to launch an amphibious expedition to finally punish Athens and Eretria.
- Artemisia I of Caria
- Battle of Salamis
- First Persian invasion of Greece
Size of the Persian force[ edit ] The various soldiers of the army of Darius I are illustrated on the tomb of Darius I at Naqsh-e Rostamwith a mention of each ethnicity in individual labels. According to Herodotus, the fleet sent by Darius consisted of triremes.
Herodotus claimed that 3, transport ships accompanied 1, triremes during Xerxes 's invasion in BC. Herodotus tells us that each trireme in the second invasion of Greece carried 30 extra marines, in addition to a probable 14 standard marines. However, according to Herodotus, there was at least a general conformity in the type of armour and style of fighting.
Lazenby estimates 30—40 transport ships would be required to carry 1, cavalry. Delos is the small island directly to the bottom-left of Mykonos Moving on, the Persian fleet approached Deloswhereupon the Delians also fled from their homes.
It is my own desire, and the king's command to me, to do no harm to the land where the two gods were born, neither to the land itself nor to its inhabitants. So return now to your homes and dwell on your island. The fleet then proceeded to island-hop across the rest of Aegean on its way to Eretria, taking hostages and troops from each island.
The citizens of Karystos refused to give hostages to the Persians, so they were besieged, and their land ravaged, until they submitted to the Persians. Most of the Athenians had abandoned the city and fled to the island of Salamis before Xerxes arrived.
A small group attempted to defend the Athenian Acropolisbut they were defeated. Xerxes burnt the city; leaving an archaeologically attested destruction layer, known as the Perserschutt. This force was defeated the following year at Plataea by the combined forces of the Greek city states, ending the Persian offensive on Greece for good.
Construction projects[ edit ] The rock-cut tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam north of Persepoliscopying that of Dariusis usually assumed to be that of Xerxes.Aegina - Wikipedia audio article
After the military blunders in Greece, Xerxes returned to Persia and oversaw the completion of the many construction projects left unfinished by his father at Susa and Persepolis. He oversaw the building of the Gate of All Nations and the Hall of a Hundred Columns at Persepolis, which are the largest and most imposing structures of the palace. He oversaw the completion of the Apadanathe Palace of Darius and the Treasury, all started by Darius, as well as having his own palace built which was twice the size of his father's.
First Persian invasion of Greece - Wikipedia
His taste in architecture was similar to that of Darius, though on an even more gigantic scale. Although Artabanus bore the same name as the famed uncle of Xerxes, a Hyrcanianhis rise to prominence was due to his popularity in religious quarters of the court and harem intrigues.
He put his seven sons in key positions and had a plan to dethrone the Achaemenids. According to Ctesias in Persica 20Artabanus then accused the Crown Prince Darius, Xerxes's eldest son, of the murder and persuaded another of Xerxes's sons, Artaxerxesto avenge the patricide by killing Darius.