It has often been proposed that young (three to six years old) children's television viewing habits contribute to early‐onset obesity. Three explanations that link. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to explore the association between the watching of television and obesity in Saudi children of school-age. Many studies regarding a positive correlation between the time of watching television, number of sweet drinks, and risk of developing obesity.
We also reviewed the reference lists from reviews, meta-analyses and other relevant publications to search for additional relevant studies. Eligibility criteria Studies were included in this dose—response meta-analysis if they met the following criteria: For dose—response analysis, the study had to report the estimates for at least three TV watching categories.
Data extraction The following data were extracted from each study: We extracted the ORs from the maximally adjusted model to reduce the risk of possible residual confounding. The median or mean level of TV watching for each category was assigned to the corresponding OR. To investigate the effect of potential confounders, subgroup analyses were conducted by the available characteristics of studies and participants if three or more studies were available per subgroup.
For dose—response analysis, a two-stage random-effects dose—response 23 meta-analysis was performed to compute the trend from the correlated log OR estimates across levels of TV watching, taking into account the between-study heterogeneity.
We used generalized least-squares regression GLST to compute study-specific slopes linear trends. This method required that the number of cases and subjects and the OR with its variance estimate for at least three quantitative exposure categories were known.
If the median or mean consumption was not provided, we assigned the midpoint of the upper and lower bound in each category as the average intake.
The lowest boundary was considered the median of the lowest category and zero if the lowest category was open. If the highest category was open-ended, we assumed that it had the same amplitude as the preceding category. Although the effect size estimated from observational studies is small with watching TV explaining very little of the variance in BMIthe results of intervention studies show large effect sizes.
In this study, watching TV for more than three hours per day, especially over the weekend, was significantly associated with childhood obesity. In the current study, after adjusting for confounders, computer and Internet use was associated with a slight increase in childhood obesity, although the association was borderline and not significant. Electronic games may have an effect on unhealthy weight gain, but they are less related to increased energy intake and their usage is relatively new; thus, the effect size is difficult to determine.
It is difficult to reduce TV watching hours because potential strategies, such as social marketing and education, are likely to be relatively weak interventions. However, the evidence suggests that a reduction in the watching of TV could significantly reduce the prevalence of obesity. The behavior of children, who use home computers rather than watch television, is generally viewed as positive.
However, using computers rather than participating in sports and social activities raises concerns about the possible effects on the children's physical and psychological well-being. Some evidence indicates that children who use home computers may watch less television than non-users, but other evidence suggests that television watching remains the same or may even increase with the use of home computers.
Consequently, the American Academy of Pediatrics advises parents to limit the time their children spend with the media and to emphasize alternative activities, such as athletics, physical conditioning, and imaginative play. It confirms that a substantial percentage of children of school-age view TV for more than three hours on week days and at weekends.
Increase in a child's age, the presence of more than one TV at home, having their own TV, and an increase in the number of hours of watching TV over the weekend were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity.
Personal computers and the Internet were not significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity.
Effect of Television on Obesity and Excess of Weight and Consequences of Health
School-based intervention programs should be properly implemented, as these programs effectively reduce the exposure to TV and BMI, especially in older children. In addition, parents should play a more positive role in reducing the time their children spend watching TV and encourage them to engage in physical activities.
Limitations The study was conducted in a limited area and does not necessary reflect the characteristics of the general population. Levels of television watching and computer use were obtained by reports of personal interview, which may affect the validity. These subjective measures may contribute to the weak associations with obesity in this study and previous studies. This approach may bias the findings for overall media use toward the null hypothesis and help explain why we found only a borderline association between computer use and weight status.
The study provides no information on the content of media use; therefore, we cannot ascertain which types of programs or advertisements are associated with a higher weight status. Footnotes Source of Support: Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: A cross sectional study.
Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The Polish government also introduced a list of products banned for sale in schools, but even these actions are not enough to effectively counteract obesity [ 240 ].
The study findings suggest [ 5051 ] that parents choosing to keep their children active and away from TV or computer screens, even for a short time daily, may see a small improvement, more activity and less sedentariness, in the after-school period.
Even such a small change as approximately 5 min more of activity and 5 min less of sedentary time leads to a reduction of obesity and diseases caused by them, both in adults and children.
The parent of obese children may find it difficult to make such a change and enforce it on their children, however, it will not only be beneficiary for the kids themselves, but also for the national healthcare systems less money spent on treating obesity-related diseases.
Although time spent viewing television appears to be stable [ 5152 ], leisure time exposure to console-based electronic games and computing is increasing rapidly [ 5152 ], as is the increase in mobile smartphones and touch screen tablets that are used for electronic gaming, social networking, video viewing, and Internet browsing [ 515354 ].
- The association between watching television and obesity in children of school-age in Saudi Arabia
The time spent by young people on screen viewing is increasing and contributes to the development of civilization diseases. Given this high sedentary exposure, healthcare practitioners should use all available opportunities to encourage children and their parents to be more active and less sedentary [ 51 ]. Although children are more susceptible to lesions due to prolonged television viewing, the problem of obesity, and its complications, the disease also affects adults.
Other researchers also emphasize that sedentary behaviors, especially TV watching, were associated with significantly elevated risk of obesity and type-II diabetes [ 57 ] and, compared with other sedentary activities such as reading or driving a car, TV watching contributes to reduced metabolism [ 445758 ].
Excessive TV viewing is associated with many disease risks and is associated with numerous risk factors, including poor diet, lower socio economic status, obesity, smoking or depressive symptoms [ 1240 ]. There is emerging evidence that too much TV watching also increases the risk of weight-related chronic diseases in Polish society [ 1240 ].
For every two hours the women spent watching television each day, they had a 23 percent higher risk of becoming obese and a 14 percent higher risk of developing diabetes [ 57 ].
In Poland we observe the same tendency, but the target group which spends more time watching television and have less physical activity are men [ 240 ]. For this reason, men, more often than women, in Poland succumb to cardiovascular disease, type-II diabetes, and depressive symptoms, caused by excess weight. As a result, the Polish population statistics show that men live shorter by 10 years than women.
As we can see, mass media may cause overweight and obesity in adult men, children, and adolescents. For this reason, preventive programs to combat obesity in Polish society are directed mainly to those target groups. In conclusion, all illustrated data provide strong evidence that sedentary behaviors, especially prolonged TV watching, are directly related to obesity, diabetes risk, heart diseases, and even increased risk of early death. Although there is strong evidence showing the need to increase physical activity not only in Polish society, in order to improve health, the belief of the population without the cooperation of the media is relatively hard to enforce and the activities undertaken by the Polish state in this respect are ineffective.
Globalization and the omnipresence of the media exert growing influences on public health and the health of individuals, e. Although at this point the television is put in a bad light, especially as it impact negatively on the health of the population, the authors recognize the large role of national governments in changing this situation.
Close cooperation of the government and the health sector with the media to introduce regulations on advertising only healthy products dedicated to children such as vegetables and fruitsas well as the implementation of compulsory education for both nutrition and promoting physical activity in society, can stop the advancing process of the growth of obesity in Europe. Moreover, such regulations, if implemented, would likely be effective—and cost effective—for the public health sector.
Diseases Caused by Obesity 6. Cardiovascular Diseases The influence of obesity on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases is indisputable [ 60 ]. The incidence, intensity, and as a consequence, the effect on the quality of life and increased risk of early death as a result of cardiovascular complications related to obesity are determined by the degree, duration and pathogenic characteristics of obesity [ 61 ].
Effect of Television on Obesity and Excess of Weight and Consequences of Health
Obesity fosters the development of hypertension, vascular atherosclerosis including coronary atherosclerosisvaricose veins, and venous thrombotic events cerebral strokes, myocardial infarction [ 60 ]. The blood of obese people has a different viscosity and flow rate through the capillaries [ 606263 ].
Also, the response of capillary vessels to constricting stimuli is attenuated [ 606263 ]. The resistance of the walls of capillary vessels to negative pressure is decreased and they break [ 1560626364 ].
The association between watching television and obesity in children of school-age in Saudi Arabia
Obese people tend to develop subcutaneous haematomas, which is a consequence of an increased permeability of capillary walls. The increased mass of body fat and its active metabolism requires intense blood flow. Obesity increases the rest flow of blood through body fat many times.
The system adapts to this condition by increasing the circulating blood volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output, and the heart responds with hypertrophy. Obesity also causes morphological changes of the heart by increasing its adiposity as well as fat infiltration within the cardiac muscle and its fatty degeneration. A specific obesity cardiomyopathy develops, which initially impairs the systolic, and later also diastolic, activity of the heart, leading to the development of cardiac failure [ 1564 ].