how the interaction between leader, followers, and situation as a single element in relation to leadership as argued by experts. effective leader is aware of the need for continuous change to improve performance, leaders. The situational theory of leadership suggests that no single Selling (S2): This style involves more back-and-forth between leaders and followers. must be aware of when making an assessment of the situation. These factors include: Leaders need to consider the relationship between the leaders and the. situation. Leaders and followers in all situations should be keenly aware of their surroundings to connection with the kind of vision desired with situational.
What do we need to change?
What objectives do we need for our organization transformation and leader-manager training to realize our vision? What plans and programs do we need to facilitate the process of change? Back in my office I analyzed and collated the data by theme from all the meetings and designed a five-day leader-manager workshop to the specifications enunciated by a consensus of all the groups based on the framework provided by the Integral Leader-Follower Relationships — Options in 4-D and integrated it with what I call the leader-manager task process, major elements of which are objectives clarification, planning, initiating action to achieve plans, detecting and solving people and technical problems, giving performance feedback, progress review and coaching.
It was to be an integrated experiential simulation of processes involved in actual on-the-job leader-manager functioning in terms of both interpersonal process and task process.
Further, it would incorporate experiences in self-managing together with team building. I went back out to all the management groups and reviewed the workshop design with them. I listened and wrote down their feedback. Most were hopeful but skeptical that our transformation efforts would work. I went back to my office and proceeded to write the curriculum. Within six months of my joining the corporation we conducted our first pilot run of the 5-day Integral Management Process Workshop.
Feature Article: Integral Leader – Follower Relationships: Options in 4-D
The workshop was very light on lecture and heavy on experientially working through real issues participants brought to each phase of the simulated integrated leader-manager process. I had requested that this initial group of twelve managers be hypercritical so that we could use their feedback to fine-tune workshop processes and materials.
So in all succeeding workshops we made sure there was at least one participant from each of the divisions.
The general results of our total integral organization transformation efforts, of which the integral Leader-Follower Relationships in 4-D concept was a vital part, over a five-year period, are described in a section near the end of this article.
Thus, this model and its earlier versions have been useful as a transformational tool for diagnosing and working through leader-follower issues for more conscious empathetic, creative and productive relationships amid fast-changing, even chaotic, environmental conditions.
Encompassing all four dimensions of leadership and managerial behavior together with four dimensions of follower behavior, the model integrates these dimensions into this now newly published model for practical use in designing and facilitating integral team building projects, experiential management workshops and associated organization transformation processes.
Our Leader — Follower Dilemma Our basic dilemma in leadership may lie in a disparity between what we believe to be right and desirable relative to empathetic leading and managing and what we actually do in practice, in other words, the values we espouse in contrast to the values we actually express in our behavior.
That leads to additional dilemmas expressed as a series of questions: In turn, we face a series of double binds: We have a tradition of competition but we want to be empathetic, understanding, and cooperative.
We are under pressure to achieve our objectives with efficient use of our human resources but we believe all points of view must be heard, often perceived as inefficient and costly. We are pushed for time but we want participative decision-making and this often takes considerable time. We see opportunities for quick results in autocratic one-person decisions but we believe shared responsibility elicits more team creativity, makes for joint ownership, fosters longer lasting solutions and is more enriching educationally.
We know teamwork is essential to achieving the qualitative and quantitative results we want but we believe some degree of autonomy is essential for individual motivation, transformation and development. I have come to see a viable way to transcend and manage these double-binds is through choosing an empathetic pattern of leadership according to the situation one is in. Furthermore, it is most effectively done by considering a juxtaposition of options available through a concept of integral leader-follower behavior in four dimensions.
Situational Leadership and Developing Great Teams
Premises The working premises on which I have built my model describing options inherent in Integral Leadership-followership relationships are the following. In this case, I generally describe it as the interdependent, intercommunicating psychosocial dynamics of whole leaders and whole followers. Please note that in the Jungian tradition I use the terms self, psyche and soul as synonyms and therefore interchangeably.
Integral Consciousness, in my view, includes both transtemporal beyond the transpersonal and all that is temporary and temporary aspects of being, such as, our biological bodies and all that goes into healthfully sustaining them, including basic needs for food, shelter, clothing, transportation, and social affiliation.
This includes attention to temporal stages of expanding consciousness, such as my ten spheres of conscious awareness: Integral Conditioning, or learning, includes two basic kinds: I view ego as anything one identifies with.
I have come to see there are two kinds of identity ego: This identification may result in an interdependent identity or ego interconnected and empathetic with the cosmic web of existence. An integral identity identifies with timeless awareness and disidentifies with temporal attachments, identifications and addictions, but is learning to use them as options in relating to entities and events in the world.
Another way of viewing the mask of personality is that it is whatever characteristics of behavior we present socially.
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP® - Situational Leadership® Training & Management Model by CLS
Integral Continua of Relationship Behavioral Options, such as, existentially complete life cycle continua, communications continua and power continua of options. Existentially complete continua provide for transcendence, inclusion, ownership and integration of extreme polar opposites complete with connecting continua of options that can be selected based on the situation at hand and the consequences that might be expected.
All carry the potential for harm if overused or misused. Examples of the latter include cosmic forces such as meteors, sunspots, earthquakes and the like. They tend to be of at least two basic kinds: An example of such a transformational process, steps a and b inspired in part by the father of psychosynthesis, Italian psychiatrist Roberto Assagioli ;may consist of: I coined the term transtemporal to describe a timeless realm of consciousness that transcends what I currently understand the terms temporal and transpersonal to mean.
While for the purpose of presentation options are presented as organized within and around a cosmological cube, the concept is interdependent psycho-organic-ecosystemic and encourages free choice within healthful parameters of natural laws and principles. The blend I refer to above is one of more or less, not either or. It is much like the relationship of figure and ground in Gestalt psychology. Individuals and organizations which value a lifestyle that encourages a centered mind-body, dynamically balanced, moderate amounts of nutrition protein, complex carbohydrates and unsaturated fats plus Omega 3exercise, meditation, sleep and psychosocial involvement produce the best short and long term results.
Value of Using the Integral Leader-Follower in 4-D Perspective Based on my experience in facilitating organization transformation projects from scratch in medium and large Fortune companies Johnston,I view the value of an integral perspective on leadership and followership as being the most viable response to date relative to creatively solving the leadership dilemma described on the first page of this article. The major value of this integral concept is the awareness and concern it engenders in individuals and organizations relative to discerning the needs and interests of our whole selves: That concern includes such matters as expanding conscious awareness of leaders and work teams relative to available options, conscious co-creative self-management competence, conscious conditioning, conscious identity options and a keen sense of humor about it all.
Integral understanding of both sides of the leader-follower coin carries the potential for helping us become more confident, versatile, creative and effective leaders, for we can then more fully empathize with the special feelings, needs, and challenges of followers. And conversely, when in the follower role one can more fully empathize with the special feelings, needs and problems of our leaders and colleagues.
Such an understanding, of course, is impossible without relating the dynamics of integral followership behaviors to an Integral Leadership frame of reference. Having pointed out all that, it is interesting and useful to note the number of combinations of primary archetype-level options consciously available to each leader and follower numbers Thus, for leaders interested in organization transformation the model can be an invaluable tool for diagnosing, creative planning and working through leader-follower issues for more conscious empathetic, creative and productive relationships.
Encompassing four dimensions of leadership, or managerial, behavior as well as four dimensions of follower, or subordinate, behavior, the model integrates these dimensions into a new psychosynthesis for practical use in integral team building, experiential management workshops and associated organization transformation projects.
This was confirmed by psychosynthesis therapist Edith Stauffer who had studied extensively with the originator of psychosynthesis Roberto Assagioli deceased in Milan, Italy. I have come to see a model of integral leader-follower behavior is not complete without considering the affect and effect of organization psychosocial climate and ecosystem dynamics interacting with the emotional and intellectual decision-making of both leaders and followers.
Two of them I consider classic theorists from the 60s, such as the late M.
Situational Leadership and Developing Great Teams - Self Awareness
I have integrated their work with more recent theories enunciated by emotional intelligence psychologist Daniel Goleman and the work of Institute of Noetic Science Senior Scientist Dean Radin One of the values, therefore, of my integral model is that it draws on and integrates theories that in the past have been viewed as separate from each other.
In an attempt to adequately represent all I have cited above under one name, I have given my model a rather long and clumsy label: It is generally modeled after a cosmological 4-D cube that represents three dimensions on the exterior and the fourth dimension in the inner most center of the cube See Figure 1.
It is best understood by examining its continua from inner to outer in a step-by-step, dimension by dimension, conceptual building process that culminates in a synthesis of all parts. Despite the mechanical feel of that approach, my 4-D model is best understood as a practical psycho-spiritual-organic systems concept and practice for conscious leadership and followership. Therefore, I have to tolerate presenting the more mechanistic-appearing version.
I imagine some readers are already feeling I am giving just too much information TMI. Integral leader-follower relations is a complex subject deserving a complex description. Should new valid and reliable scientific studies, empirical feedback and intuitive insights gained from experimentation in the laboratory of my everyday organization life emerge I will be making adjustments accordingly. In other words, the 4-D model and this article are living documents subject to evolutionary change.
Conceptual Building Process My conceptual building process starts in the center of the 4-D model Figure 1 within the inner circle. Here is the place of oneness, silence, peace, love, harmony and, paradoxically perhaps, co-creativity with the infinite timeless Source of all of us. The center also represents the common connecting place of our being to which scientist Dean Radin refers in his recent book Entangled Minds. Here, all minds seem interdependently entangled within the limitless Mind of the Source of all.
Theoretical quantum physicist David Bohm has described this sphere of imperceptible, but often intuitively felt, interconnection with the minds of others as implicit implied, suggested in contrast to the explicit sphere in which we experience visible nature and a sense of separateness from everything and everyone else. Many people in my acquaintance report experiencing themselves as interdependently one with this transparent, implicit, infinite, timeless Source of all.
In such identifications with the Source they come to consciously realize their common psychospiritual origin with all beings, hence, their implicit interconnectedness, interdependence and empathy with them.
On a more surface explicit level they experience greater self-confidence, self-management effectiveness, clarity of thought and feeling, empathy, intuition, versatility, creativity and related benefits. There are literally hundreds of examples I could give drawn from my work life. During leadership workshops and teambuilding meetings I facilitate I often receive parasensory communications about what is going on beneath the surface of group processes. I have come to expect that the greater the amount of conflict among participants the greater will be the number of parasensory experiences to help me facilitate effectively.
Blanchard and Hersey said that the leadership style must correspond to the development level of the follower — it is the leader who should adapt. Traditionally there are six steps taken in the process of situational leadership: This is where a tool like the Self Awareness diagnostic can really help and speed up the process.
To develop individuals to reach their full potential you need to know what makes them tick. You need know how to get the best out of them and build their confidence.
You need to play to their strengths. Self Awareness can help. Our unique diagnostic allows individuals to understand and develop their soft skills, which employers really value. A blue print for creating highly motivated effective teams. Without a tool like Self Awareness building highly effective teams can take a great deal of time and will depend on the skill of the leader and of course those members who make up the team.
Its main strengths are that it is both easy to understand and easy to apply. However, its limitations are more extensive.