Glossary of Fabric & Textile Terms - Duralee
Rather than using existing fabrics, Guyon and other fashion who are known for their embroidery work, Guillet, which specialises in creating Ralph & Russo creates every single piece of textile from scratch with other less lavish textiles are also the result of impeccable know-how. . See now, buy now. For the Brockhampton album, see Iridescence (album). Iridescence in soap bubbles. Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear Pearlescence is a related effect where some or all of the reflected light is white, where iridescent effects produce only other colours. The term. After years of successfully operating as an independent entity, member hip- hop boy band Brockhampton unveiled its major label debut.
Jersey Fabric - Usually thinner or lighter weight than interlock knit with less stretch. Jute - A base fiber, chiefly from India, used primarily for gunny sacks, bags, cordage, and binding threads in carpets and rugs. K Back to Top Kapok - A short, lightweight, cotton like, vegetable fiber found in the seed pods of the Bombocaceae tree. Because of its brittle quality, it is generally not spun. However, its buoyancy and moisture resistance makes it ideal for use in cushions, mattresses, and life jackets.
Khaki - A tan or dusty colored warp face twill, softer and finer than drill. Fabric made of cotton, linen, wool, worsted, or manmade fibers and blends. Knit Fabrics - Fabrics made from only one set of yarns, all running in the same direction. Some knits have their yarns running along the length of the fabric, while others have their yarns running across the width of the fabric. Knit fabrics are held together by looping the yarns around each other. Knitting creates ridges in the resulting fabric.
Wales are the ridges that run lengthwise in the fabric, courses run crosswise. Knit-de-Knit - A type of yarn texturizing in which a crimped yarn is made by knitting the yarn into a fabric, and then heat setting the fabric. The yarn is then unraveled from the fabric and used in this permanently crinkled form.
L Back to Top La Coste - A double knit fabric made with a combination of knit and tuck stitches to create a mesh like appearance. Lace - An openwork fabric with yarns that are twisted around each other to form complex patterns of figures. Lace may be hand or machine made by a variety of fabrication methods including weaving, knitting, crocheting, and knotting. Lame - A woven fabric using flat silver or gold metal threads to create either the design or the background in the fabric.
Lawn - A light, fine cloth made using carded or combed linen or cotton yarns. The fabric has a crease-resistant, crisp finish. Linen lawn is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Cotton lawn is a similar type of fabric, which can be white, solid colored, or printed.
Leather - Animal skin dressed for use in clothing. Leatherette - A simulated leather. Linen - A natural plant fiber, linen fibers are stronger and more lustrous than cotton. Lisere - The design is created by colored warp threads brought up on the face of the fabric, leaving loose yarns on the back woven vertically, which gives it a vertical stripe effect. Liseres are Victorian in appearance and have embroidered style patterns. Loden Cloth - A heavily fulled or felted fabric originating in Austrian Tyrol.
Wool may be blended with camel hair or alpaca. Thick, soft, waterproof without chemical treatment. Called gray or griege. Lycra - A DuPont trademark for its spandex fiber.
Any time you see this fiber listed on a label, expect comfort, movement, and shape retention that won't wash away. M Madras - A lightweight plain weave cotton fabric with a striped, plaid, or checked pattern. A true madras will bleed when washed. This type of fabric is usually imported from India. Marabou - A thrown silk usually dyed in the gum or a fabric made of this silk.
Matelasse - A medium to heavyweight luxury fabric made in a double cloth construction to create a blistered or quilted surface. Melton - A heavyweight, dense, compacted, and tightly woven wool or wool blend fabric used mainly for coats. Merino - A type of wool that originates from pure bred Merino sheep. The best Merino wool comes from Italy. Mesh - A type of fabric characterized by its net like open appearance and the spaces between the yarns.
Mesh is available in a variety of constructions including wovens, knits, laces, or crocheted fabrics. Microfibers - An extremely fine synthetic fiber that can be woven into textiles with the texture and drape of natural fiber cloth but with enhanced washability, breathability, and water repellancy. Mohair - Hair fibers from the Angora goat.
Moiree - A corded fabric, usually made from silk or one of the manufactured fibers, which has a distinctive water marked wavy pattern on the face of the fabric. Moleskin - It resists wrinkling and has a beautiful sueded look on the face.
The reverse has a satiny look and feel. Monk's Cloth - A heavy weight cotton fabric utilizing the basket weave variation of the plain weave. Used for draperies and slip covers, monk's cloth is an example of 4 x 4 basket weave. It has poor dimensional stability and tends to snag. Muslin - An inexpensive, medium weight, plain weave, low count less than threads per square inch cotton sheeting fabric. In it's unfinished form, it is commonly used in fashion design to make trial garments for preliminary fit.
N Back to Top Nano-Tex - Nano-Tex protects your home textiles with soft, durable applications that provide the right balance of comfort and performance.
Nano-Tex brings innovative solutions that resist spills, repel stains, and keep you static-free. For more information, please visit www. Cotton, linen, silk and wool are the foremost examples.
Needlepoint - Hand embroidery in petit or gros point stitch on a canvas foundation. Net - Refers to any open construction fabric whether it is created by weaving, knitting, knotting, or another method.
Nylon - A synthetic fiber known for its resistance to abrasion, inherent elasticity and strength which makes it ideal for use in upholstery fabrics. Nylon fabrics have a tendency to pill easily and to attract surface soil.
O Oilcloth - Sheetings or printcloth that are printed, bleached, or dyed, and given a special linseed oil and pigment preparation. Oilskin - A cotton linen, silk, or manmade material treated with linseed oil varnish for waterproofing. Ombre - A fabric made by laying in wefts of yarn that are closely colored hues that after weaving created a shaded effect. Organdy - A stiffened, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, usually cotton or polyester.
Organza - A crisp, sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric, with a medium to high yarn count, made of silk, rayon, nylon, or polyester. Ottoman - A heavy, plain weave fabric with wide, flat crosswise ribs that are larger and higher than in faille.
It sometimes comes with alternating narrow and wide ribs. When made of narrow ribs only, it is called soleil. Warp may be silk or manmade fiber, filling may be cotton, silk, wool, or manmade fiber. Outline Quilting - A hand guided quilting in which the stitching follows the motifs of the design in a printed fabric. Oxford - A fine, soft, lightweight woven cotton or blended with manufactured fibers in a 2 x 1 basket weave variation of the plain weave construction.
P Back to Top Paisley - A tear drop shaped, fancy printed pattern. Paisley motifs have been described as a pine cone, mango, pear and teardrop. Peau de Soie - A heavy twill weave drapeable satin fabric, made of silk or a manufactured fiber. It is used to weave some of the popular quilting fabrics which have a silk like hand.
Percale - A superior quality plain weave cloth of closely set combed and carded long staple cotton. Petit Point - A needle point stitch made on canvas with one foundation thread in contrast to two or more threads of a gros point.
Pick - A filing thread or yarn that runs crosswise or horizontally in woven goods. The pick interlaces with the warp to form a woven cloth. Piece Dyed - Cloth that is dyed in a vat by the bolt full piece after weaving. Pill - A fuzzy ball caused by the rolling up of abraded surface fibers. Pique - A medium weight cotton or cotton blend fabric with a pebbly weave that looks almost like a check. Plisse - A lightweight, plain weave, fabric, made from cotton, rayon, or acetate, and characterized by a puckered striped effect, usually in the warp direction.
The crinkled effect is created through the application of a caustic soda solution, which shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is applied.
Plisse is similar in appearance to seersucker. Plush - A compactly woven fabric with warp pile higher than that of velvet. Made of cotton, wool, silk, or manmade fiber, often woven as double face fabric and then sheared apart. Higher pile gives bristly texture. Usually piece dyed but may be printed. Ply - The number of yarns twisted together to make a composite yarn.
Pointelle - Very feminine, delicate looking, rib knit fabric made with a pattern of openings. Polyester - A manufactured fiber introduced in the early s, and is second only to cotton in worldwide use.
Polyester has high strength although somewhat lower than nylonexcellent resiliency, and high abrasion resistance. Low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly. Poplin - A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave. The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. Q Quilting - A fabric construction in which a layer of down or fiberfill is placed between two layers of fabric, and then held in place by stitching or sealing in a regular, consistent, all over pattern on the goods.
R Back to Top Railroad - To turn a fabric in a direction where the selvages are in a horizontal postion. In a plain fabric or when the design is non directional, you can avoid making seams when the width of the goods will accommodate the height required.
Some upholstery fabrics are designed in this manner to be used exclusively for furniture. Ramie - A base fiber, similar to flax, taken from the stalk of a plant grown in China. Rayon - A natural fiber created from wood pulp, it usually has good drape and a soft hand. Ripstop Nylon - A lightweight, wind resistant, and water resistant fabric. Roller Printing - A technique first developed in done with engraved metal cylinders.
Each color of the design requires a separate cylinder. Sometimes referred to as cylinder or machine printing. Rotary Screen Printing - A process where the cloth moves under a machine operated series of fast moving tubes. The dyes are exuded from the inside through the pattern which perforates the tube. Each color requires a separate tube.
S Back to Top Sateen Fabric - A fabric made from yarns with low luster, such as cotton or other staple length fibers. The fabric has a soft, smooth hand and a gentle, subtle luster. Satin - With a lustrous, shiny surface, drapability depends on fiber content. Silk and rayon satins have the best stitch results. Satin Weave - A basic weave where the face of the fabric is almost entirely warp threads on the surface. Screen - An open mesh area which has been stamped out to form a pattern.
Screen Printing - A hand or machine table printing process in which a stenciled screen held in a frame is positioned on the cloth and color is applied with a squeeze.
Separate screens are required for each color of the pattern. Seersucker - A fabric with a woven pucker, this fabric is traditionally cotton, but can be polyester. Sequined - Ornamented with a small plate of shining metal or plastic. Sheer - Any very light weight fabric e. Usually has an open weave. Silk - A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. Most silk is collected from cultivated worms, Tussah silk, or wild silk, is a thicker, shorter fiber produced by worms in their natural habitat.
Silk Shantung - Similar to Dupioni silk, Shantung has a more refined appearance with smaller slubs. Sisal - A strong base fiber that originates from the leaves of the Agave plant, which is found in the West Indies, Central America, and Africa. Solid - An upholstery, multipurpose or drapery weight fabric consisting of no pattern or repeat. The fabric is usually one colorway but can resemble a two tone in some cases.
Strie - A very fine irregular streaked effect made by a slight variance in the color of warp yarns. Strike - Off — A trial sample of printed fabric made to indicate and verify color and pattern before printing quantity. Substrate - Refers to base cloth or ground cloth for printing. Suede - Leather with a napped surface.
Surah - A light weight, lustrous twill weave constructed fabric with a silk like hand. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon. Suzani - A heavy and soft upholstery weight textile in a jacquard weave.
Surface appears puffy or cushioned. The pattern can vary in size or shape and can have multiple colorways. Synthetic Fabric - Fabric made of man made fibers. Examples are polyester, Avora and nylon. T Back to Top T. Tabby - A plain weave construction in which one warp thread passes over and under a single weft thread. The threads of the warp and weft are of the same size and set with the same number per square inch thereby resulting in a balanced weave. Table Printing - A form of screen printing in which the cloth is stretched and secured to the top of a table and the screens are moved down the table either by hand or machine, pattern repeat by pattern repeat.
Taffeta - With a crisp hand, taffeta is typically used for formal wear like gowns and fuller skirts. Tapestry - A heavy, often hand woven, ribbed fabric, featuring an elaborate design depicting a historical or current pictorial display. The weft-faced fabric design is made by using colored filling yarns, only in areas where needed, that are worked back and forth over spun warp yarns, which are visible on the back.
Tarpaulin - A waterproofed canvas sometimes made of nylon or other manmade fiber. Tassel - Tassels come in all sizes, shapes and forms. A hanging ornament consisting of a head and a skirt of cut yarn, looped yarns, or bullion fringe. Tassel Trim - A plain or decorative gimp with attached tassels. Ticking - Originally hand woven of linen as covering for feather mattresses, the characteristic herringbone weave was intended to keep feathers in and ticks out.
A closely woven cotton in a twill or satin weave, and usually with woven sometimes printed stripes. Toile - A type of decorating pattern consisting of a white or off white background on which a repeated pattern depicting a fairly complex scene, generally of a pastoral theme such as for example a couple having a picnic by a lake. The pattern portion consists of a single color, most often black, dark red, or blue.
Tweed - A medium to heavy weight, fluffy, woolen, twill weave fabric containing colored slubbed yarns. Twill - A fabric that shows a distinct diagonal wale on the face e. U Back to Top Ultrasuede - An imitation suede fabric composed of polyester microfibers combined with polyurethane foam in a non woven structure. Hand and appearance resemble sheep suede. Union Cloth - A cloth most often used for printing that is woven with blended yarns. The filler is usually twisted linen and cotton and the warp is generally cotton.
V Back to Top Velour - Usually with a knitted back, velour resembles velvet, but has some stretch. Velvet - With a longer pile, velvet is the most luxurious fabric. Stretch velvet has some lycra, it can be machine washed and will not create a shine in the seat or elbows. Velveteen - A cotton or cotton blend fabric with a short, dense pile. It lacks the sheen and drape of velvet. Venice Lace - This lace often has a high profile, and is made using a needlepoint technique rather than embroidery.
A heavier weight lace, the patterns vary from geometric to floral. Each pattern is attached to the others by bars made of thread. Viscose - The most common type of rayon. It is produced in much greater quantity than cuprammonium rayon, the other commercial type. Voile - A crisp, lightweight, plain weave cotton like fabric, similar in appearance to organdy and organza.
Waffle cloth has a honeycomb weave made on dobby loom. Usually made of cotton. Warp or End - The threads of a textile that run vertically through the loom and are parallel to the selvage. Warp Print - A fabric where the design has been printed on the warp before it has been woven. This results in a pattern with an indistinct image similar to the technique of impressionist painting.
Weft or Filling - The horizontal yarns in a cloth which run selvage to selvage across the fabric. There must be one screen for each color. Wool - Wool is naturally stain and wrinkle resistant.
The main benefit is that the proteins in honeybee silk specifically are much easier to reproduce in a lab than those from other organisms. A Double Ikat is when both the warp and the weft are tie-dyed before weaving.
Through common usage, the word has come to describe both the process and the cloth itself. Ikats have been woven in cultures all over the world. Inego — The dextrose sugar that is taken from corn is used as fuel for the creation of the polymer this fiber is made up of. Instead of a heavy, saturated fabric, Inotek actually becomes 10 percent thinner when wet. Often placed between the lining and the outer fabric, it can be made from yarns or directly from fibers, and may be either woven, non-woven, or knitted.
Interlining is similar to batting, a thick layer of fiber designed to provide insulation, loft, and body to quilts, pillow toppers, and heavy winter jackets. Depending on the application, interlining materials can be woven, knitted, or created by fusing fibers together.
Silk, wool, and artificial fibers with good insulating qualities are common choices for interlining. Some interlinings are designed to be fused, while others are intended to be sewn to one or both layers of the textile.
As an inner lining within textiles, interlining is used in a number of applications. In many cases, interlining serves as an additional layer of insulation. For example, drapes are often interlined with flannel or a similarly thick material to keep rooms warmer in winter and cooler in summer, while many winter coats and pants use a thick layer of interlining to protect the wearer from the elements.
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Plain double knit interlock stitch fabrics are thicker, heavier, and more stable than single knit constructions. Developed by Scandinavian science and design students. The pulp is then processed to create the finished fibers that can be spun into yarn. Other names for this type of fabric are changeable and shot. This attachment provides versatility in designs and permits individual control of each of the warp yarns. Thus, fabrics of almost any type or complexity can be made.
Brocade and damask are types of jacquard woven fabrics. Jersey fabrics may be produced on either circular or flat weft knitting machines. Back to Top K Kenaf — Made from the Kenaf plant, Kenaf textiles are eco-friendly, naturally very absorbent, and even fire-retardant. The hand of the fabric is similar to linen. The fabric is dipped into a chlorine substance that is similar to bleach, and left to dry. Once ready, the silk is able to kill a range of bacteria- and very quickly.
The pattern in lace is usually open and most often floral in design. Machine-made lace is most commonly seen today and many patterns formerly only made by hand, are imitated by machine. Lace is the traditional bridal fabric, but it is also used for other non-formal clothing such as sports clothes.
The following entries are some of the major types of lace. It can a bonded utilizing either foam itself, or some other material, such as adhesives, heat, or chemical bonding agents. The fabric has a crease-resistant, crisp finish. Linen lawn is synonymous with handkerchief linen. Cotton lawn is a similar type of fabric, which can be white, solid colored, or printed. In this weave, two or more warp yarns are twisted around each other as they are interlaced with the filling yarns; thus securing a firm hold on the filling yarn and preventing them from slipping out of position.
Also called the gauze weave. Leno weave fabrics are frequently used for window treatments, because their structure gives good durability with almost no yarn slippage, and permits the passage of light and air. Lenpur A textile that is cellulose-based; the fiber is derived from the bark and branches of white pine trees. Linings are found not only in apparel, but also in draperies and occasionally curtains and bedspreads. Items that are lined tend to wear better and last longer than unlined items and the appearance of a lined item is usually better than that of an unlined one.
Creating lotus flower fabric is an intensive, but eco-friendly process as it is all done by hand.
A true madras will bleed when washed. This type of fabric is usually imported from India. It is made of silk, wool and manufactured fibers.
Used mainly for suits and dresses. Common end-uses are upholstery, draperies, and evening dresses. The yarns are obtained from short ends of silk from Mulberry silkworms Bombyx Mori and spun by hand without removing the gum sericin. As such, there are slubs and irregularities that give the fabric a unique character. It looks something like a tweed, but the fibers are all the same color. Matka is good for suits and jackets. Wool Melton is used mainly for jackets, coats and blankets.
Mesh is available in a variety of constructions including wovens, knits, laces, or crocheted fabrics. The fiber is formed from a flat ribbon of metal, coated with a protective layer of plastic, which reduces tarnishing. Metal used in apparel fabric is purely decorative. It rivals cashmere in softness and resembles real mink in touch. It is quick-drying, highly absorbent, and actually quite strong. The feel of moleskin is smooth and solid, reminiscent of suede.
The reverse has a satiny look and feel. Moleskin is great for pants, jackets and heavy shirts. It has poor dimensional stability and tends to snag. It is one of the oldest fabrics known. Linen is woven in various weights for different purposes and is occasionally used in knit blends. Mousseline usually has a crisp hand. The word mousseline is often used today for a fabric resembling de soie. In its unfinished form, it is commonly used in fashion design to make trial garments for preliminary fit.
The fabric can be napped on either one or both sides. The material has been very popular in the fashion world in recent years. The net is made by knotting the intersections of thread or cord to form the mesh. The fabric is made from the fibers within the stalks of the plant. Has the look of hopsack but much softer. Silk Noil sometimes incorrectly called raw silk has a nubby feel and a low sheen. Noil somewhat resembles cotton in surface texture, and sews easily.
The nubby texture of noil comes from the use of very short fibers that are used to weave the fabric. When these short fibers are spun into yarns, the resulting yarns have occasional slubs and loose ends. Nubs vary between different weaves. Noil which has not been completely de-gummed had the natural sericin removedmay easily attract dirt and odors.
Now, resins from plastics are used instead of oil. Olefin is a very versatile fiber with excellent flexibility. Used for waterproof garments, book bags, belts, bibs, pencil cases, luggage, surgical supplies.
The fabric is used primarily in evening and wedding apparel for women. Lower grades of the unfinished fabric are used for such industrial purposes as bags, sacks, pipe coverings.
Higher grades of finished osnaburg can be found in mattress ticking, slipcovers, workwear, and apparel. The ribbed effect is created by weaving a finer silk or manufactured warp yarn with a heavier filler yarn, usually made of cotton, wool, or waste yarn. In the construction, the heavier filler yarn is completely covered by the warp yarn, thus creating the ribbed effect. End uses for this fabric include coats, suits, dresses, upholstery, and draperies.
The fabric is used primarily in shirtings. It is pressed flat and has a high luster made possible by a tremendous roller-press treatment given the material in finishing. It is now often made as knit fabric. It is made of silk, nylon, rayon, cotton, or polyester.
The soft, sueded finish results from sanding or chemical treatment of the fabric. This finish allows suits and dresses to flow with movement and drape beautifully. The feel of peachskin is soft, smooth and moderately wrinkle-resistant. It is a medium weight fabric that has a fuzzy, suede like feel. Looks like Charmeuse, but Peau de Soie has a moderately stiff drape.
It can be made of silk or manufactured fibers, and used mainly for bridal gowns and eveningwear. End-uses include sheets, blouses, and dresses. Pile yarns may be cut or uncut in the fabric.
Corduroy and velveteen are examples of cut filling pile fabrics.
The fabric has a natural gloss similar to silk, and is better in quality. Used in describing piques, corduroys or other ribbed fabrics. Also called baby cord. Woven versions have cords running lengthwise, or in the warp direction. Knitted versions are double-knit fabric constructions, created on multi-feed circular knitting machines. A portmanteau of plastic and leather, the term is sometimes used derogatorily, implying use as a substitute for genuine animal hide to cut costs.
Besides cost, pleather may also be preferred because it is lighter than leather, or as an alternative to real leather citing reasons of animal cruelty. Pleather, being made of plastic, will not decompose as quickly.
Not all pleathers are the same. Polyurethane is washable, can be dry-cleaned and allows some air to flow through the garment. The crinkled effect is created through the application of a caustic soda solution, which shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is applied. End-uses include dresses, shirtings, pajamas, and bedspreads.
Plush from French peluche is a textile having a cut nap or pile the same as fustian or velvet. Originally the pile of plush consisted of mohair or worsted yarn, but now silk by itself or with a cotton backing is used for plush.
Modern plush is commonly manufactured from synthetic fibres such as polyester. Brushed or sheared fabrics are also sometimes referred to as plush. One of the largest uses of this fabric is in the production of toys, with small stuffed animals made from plush fabric, such as teddy bears, known as plushies.
Plush is also one of the main materials for the construction of designer toys. Has white or colored dots individually spaced or in groups. Used for curtains, bassinets, evening gowns. Pointelle is a drop needle knit fabric.
It is a textured fabric with holes forming a design in the fabric. End-uses include blouses, dresses, etc. This plain fabric has an elastic quality with a slight horizontal line. The fabric looks the same on both sides. The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. Raschel warp knits contain inlaid connecting yarns in addition to columns of knit stitches.
Generally, the term reversible is applied to two quite different fabrics joined together by such methods as laminating or double cloth construction. Reversible fabrics frequently are used for coats, less frequently for other garments. Rib knits have a very high degree of elasticity in the crosswise direction.
A 1 x 1 rib has one rib up and one down. A 2 x 1 rib has two ribs up and one down. This knitted fabric is used for complete garments and for such specialized uses as sleeve bands, neck bands, sweater waistbands, and special types of trims for use with other knit or woven fabrics.
Lightweight sweaters in rib knits provide a close, body-hugging fit. Large rib yarns stop tears without adding excess weight to active sportswear apparel and outdoor equipment such as sleeping bags and tents. A variation of the satin weave, produced by floating fill yarns over warp yarns. The fabric has a soft, smooth hand and a gentle, subtle luster. The yarns are interlaced in such a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat shiny surface effect is achieved.
The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high luster filament fibers in yarns which also have a low amount of twist. A true satin weave fabric always has the warp yarns floating over filling yarns. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include: SeaCell — An eco-friendly fabric made from seaweed.
Developed by Nanonic Inc, a small percentage of the plant is mixed with cellulose, putting it in the same family as lyocell.
The type of seaweed used, known as brown algae, is certified organic. In the production of seersucker, some of the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed.
The result produces a puckered stripe effect in the fabric. Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such as shirts, trousers, and informal suits. Sequins are a shiny, usually metallic, decoration or spangle.
Sequins are sewn to clothing, especially evening dresses because they shimmer and sparkle in the light.
Sequins usually have a single, central hole for fastening to the garment or fabric. Sequins are also known as paillettes. On the face, the distinct diagonal runs from the lower left to the upper right — piece dyed. Has a smooth, hard finish that wears exceptionally well but will shine with use. The shine cannot be removed permanently. It is a good cloth in tailoring as it drapes and clings very well.
Made in various weights. Used mainly for coats, suits and sportswear. End-uses include dresses and suits. Sheer fabrics are usually made in an open weave to create fabrics with varying degrees of transparency.
Batiste, organdy, and voile are examples of sheer fabrics. Low thread count sheeting is called muslin, while high thread count sheeting with combed yarns is known as percale. The name comes from the group of people who live near or on the Himalayan mountains. Used for outerwear trim and lining. These sheep have a coarse outer coat and a very fine undercoat which gives added warmth.
The best is the undergrowth. It is not shorn but pulled out by hand in the spring. Other wools sometimes called Shetland if they have a similar appearance. Shetland wools have a very soft hand and a shaggy finish of protruding fibers. It is very lightweight and warm. Much is made by hand and comes in distinctive soft coloring. Often the natural colors ranging from off-white, various grays to almost black and brown are used and not dyed.
Real Shetland wools are expensive, high quality products. Used in coats, suits, and sportswear for both men and women. Fine Shetlands are made into fine shawls, underwear crochet, work and hosiery. The fabric has an iridescent look and a crisp but not stiff hand. Shimmer can also be made with a crushed finish which adds texture and brings out the shine in the fabric. Shimmer is most commonly used for apparel but can also be used to create sophisticated window treatments and pillows.
It drapes well, never wrinkles and washes beautifully. Suitable for almost any wardrobe item. Like real silk, Soysilk is cool to the touch, has a lovely drape and is very soft. There is a slight sheen to it as well, especially when finished. It is also generally wrinkle-free unlike real silk which is stubborn with wrinklesand also has little to no shrinkage when washed.
Since it is a natural fiber, it takes dye very easily. Polyester has a certain degree of natural stretch and more can be given to the yarn in the processing or in the finishing of the fabric. Occasionally, polyester woven fabrics are described as stretch fabrics.
Usually, stretch implies a degree of visible give in a fiber or fabric that stretches and then returns quickly to its original shape.
Stretch fabrics are sometirnes described as elastic. It is used in sport coats, gloves, linings, and cleaning cloths. It was specially engineered by DuPont to provide the soft, supple touch of cotton with the strength, durability and performance advantages of nylon. It has high water and wind resistant properties, high abrasion and is tear resistant. Supplex manages moisture and keeps its vibrant color, wash after wash. Clothes made of Supplex will never fuzz or pill.
Surah is the fabric of ties, dresses, and furnishings. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon. For formal wear, taffeta is a favorite choice. It provides a crisp hand, with lots of body. Silk taffeta gives the ultimate rustle, but other fibers are also good choices. Tapa — A flexible cloth made from wood. Traditionally made on the island of Tonga, it is created from the bark of the paper mulberry tree.
Rather than being knit or woven from a spun thread, the material begins in its original form as a sheet of wood. The weft-faced fabric design is made by using colored filling yarns, only in areas where needed, that are worked back and forth over spun warp yarns, which are visible on the back. End-uses include wall hangings and upholstery.
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Each tartan pattern is associated with a certain specific family called a clan. Plaid, a term used for tartan, is actually the name of a shawl made of tartan fabric. The use of plaid has become so general that tartan is almost always limited to authentic clan designs.
Some of the most common tartans follow, but there are many others. This fabric is formed by using two sets of warp yarns. One set of warp yarns is under very little tension; when the filling yarns are packed into place, these loose yarns are pushed backward along with the filling yarns, and loops are formed.
Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel. Terry velour is valued for its soft, luxurious hand. Thermal is usually limited to those fabrics woven in a honeycomb pattern leaving small spaces in which air can be trapped. Thermal fabrics are popular for underwear and blankets. The more air a material traps in a given space, the greater its insulating value.
Ticking is a heavy, tightly woven carded cotton fabric usually in a pattern of alternately woven stripes in the warp, Jacquard or dobby designs, or printed patterns. When ticking is used in clothing, striped ticking with narrow woven stripes is usually most popular. Red and white, black and white, and navy and white are the most popular ticking color combinations. Items to be dyed are tied or knotted so that the folds of the fabric form barriers to the dye to create patterns or designs on the fabric.
It has an excellent draping quality. Though lightweight, it is an extremely strong fabric. The warp beam holds thousands of yards of yarns in a parallel arrangement, and these yarns are fed into the knitting area simultaneously. Sufficient yarns to produce the final fabric width and length are on the beam. Has a very clear finish. It drapes well, and tailors easily. Tricotine has exceptional wearing qualities. Very much like cavalry twill, but finer.
In the same family as whipcords, coverts, and gabardines. End-uses include dance costumes and veils.