What type of relation exists between a tapeworm and an infected mammal? - Myschool
A. Symbiosis; B. Commensalism; C. Predation; D. Parasitism; E. Saprophytism food from mammals, at the same infect them, mammal suffer arm for tapeworms. A parasitic relationship is one in which one organism, the parasite, lives off of another A few examples of parasites are tapeworms, fleas, and barnacles. Some hosts also build a symbiotic relationship with another organism that helps to. micrograph reveals the morphology of a Taenia solium tapeworm scolex with its Human tapeworms can live for years in the small intestine.
In case of danger the goby fish touches the shrimp with its tail to warn it. When that happens both the shrimp and goby fish quickly retract into the burrow. The burrs usually do not harm the cow, but the cow does not receive any benefit, either.
The fleas suck blood from the skin of their host. The fleas may cause blood loss, irritation and spread diseases over a period of time. After a period of time, the eggs hatch and the wasp larvae feed on the caterpillar from the inside out.
The caterpillar eventually dies. The epiphytes receive a better location for collecting water and sunlight. The larger plant does not benefit in anyway.
They hunt prey that live in the treetops of the rainforest. They kill the prey by squeezing their bodies with their sharp talons. The fungi benefits by being able to use the sugar the algae makes through photosynthesis. The algae can't live without the fungi, and the fungi can't live without the algae. A more familiar example of mutualism is the relationship between fruiting plants and animals that eat fruits. All plants work to make sure that their seeds get dispersed so that the parent plant isn't competing with its offspring for sunlight and water.
Fruiting plants have solved this problem by covering their seed with a tasty fruit. Animals come along, eat the fruit, and walk away.
Tapeworm and cow
Most of the seeds inside the fruit pass through the animals digestive tract unharmed some distance from the parent plant. The animal benefits by getting to eat the tasty and nutritious fruits and the plants benefit by getting its seeds dispersed. Of course many of the seeds won't survive and the plant had to produce fruit in the process, but no one ever said that both organisms had to benefit equally.
Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither hurt nor harmed. A good example many of us are probably familiar with deals with plants, like burdock, that disperse their seeds by making them sticky.
Animals walk by the plant and the seeds stick to the animal. The seeds ride around on the animal until either the seed loses its stickiness or the animal picks it off.
The plant does 3 things to lure in the ants. First, the large thorns are hollow and provide a place for the ants to live. Second, the plants have swollen glands, nectaries, which produce a sugary solution the ants drink. The nectaries are obvious in the photo below. In return for the room and board the ants chase off herbivores, kill and eat herbivorous insects, and destroy and plants that try to compete with the acacia.
The horsehair worm starts life as an egg laid in a puddle. The puddle dries out and a grasshopper or similar insect comes along and eats the egg, which promptly hatches and burrows through the gut of the insect into its body cavity or hemolymph. Here, surrounded by the nutritious blood of the insect it grows until it reaches adulthood.
At that point it starts producing chemicals which take over the brain of the insect and cause the insect to seek out water, which it jumps into. The worm then exits the hopper and lives in the puddle, mating and laying more eggs. The grasshopper, if it doesn't drown, may survive the ordeal. Below, a social parasite. This cricket lives in an ant nest. It disguises itself with a chemical signature that fools the ants into thinking it is just another ant.
It is free to roam the nest and it even gets the ants to feed it. The Brown-Headed Cowbirds above are nest parasites. They originally followed the bison on the Great Plains, feeding on insects kicked up by the large herds.
Tapeworms and Mammals by Willie Nonnenmacher on Prezi
Since the bison themselves migrated, following the melting snows and eating the fresh spring grass, the cowbirds had to move as well. This presented a problem, as it's hard to incubate eggs on the move. Lay the eggs in other birds' nests, and trick the other birds into raising your young.
The cowbirds hatch out first, push the other eggs out of the nest, and the nest-builders often much smaller than the rapidly growing cowbird end up feeding it instead of their own young. Even though the other birds may pattern their eggs the cowbirds are up to the challenge. Cowbirds hesitate entering forests, but roads, farms, powerlines and other human intrusions give them a pathway deep into the woods where they are free to parasitize the nests of birds which until the arrival of humans didn't have to worry about the cowbirds.
Some of these bird species are on the verge of extinction as a result. Bromeliads left, above left avoid the hassle of crating a trunk to lift their leaves above the forest floor and closer to the sun. They simply grow on the branches of trees. Since the bromeliads don't take any nutrients from the trees this is usually classified as a commensalism, but if there are a lot of bromeliads left the tree will need to add extra wood to support the weight a bromeliad can trap up to 10 gallons 80 pounds of water in its leaves.
So, if there are a lot of bromeliads the relationship overall turns into a negative for the tree. The bromeliads also host a number of organisms in the water they trap; the wastes from the animals living there undoubtedly fertilizes the bromeliad in a mutualistic relationship. The tree at lower left is absolutely covered with epiphytes. Leeches below left are usually thought of as ectoparasites although some are predators.
They attach to a vertebrate host and take a blood meal before dropping off. Most aren't adapted to a single vertebrate host, but they are highly adapted to sucking blood; their saliva includes anesthetics to help keep the host from noticing the bite, as well as anticoagulants to keep the blood flowing. Below is a larval mussel freshwater clam. If there is any case of "good" parasitism, this may be it. The little mussels go into the mouth and pass over the gills.
Here, they clamp down by closing the shell and digging in with the little teeth pictured at the edge of the shell. The fish provides a meal and transport upstream moving is not something mussels do well over long distances, particularly upstream. Lichens above and left are mutualistic associations between a fungus and an algae or cyanobacteria. They are the terrestrial equivalents in some ways of corals. The fungus provides a tough, waterproof body able to withstand extreme environments on rocks and tree trunks.
It is good at obtaining water and secretes acids to dissolve minerals from the rocks. It also produces carbon dioxide. All of these materials are then funneled to the endosymbiotic algae or cyanobacteria, which use the materials in photosynthesis and produce sugars which are then shared with the fungus. Some studies have shown that the fungus benefits from this relationship more so than the algae; at least under good conditions algae grown without the fungus grow faster then they do with the fungus.
This wasp has stung and paralyzed a stink bug and is dragging it to its underground lair. Here it will deposit an egg and the larvae that hatches from the egg will eventually consume the bug. Keeping the bug alive but paralyzed ensures it doesn't rot. The two lice to the right parasitize humans.
The body louse above can attach to hairs of the body or head and then suck blood from the host. While it is relatively easy to remove the adults particularly if your hair is thinthe eggs are another story. The eggs are called nits and are glued to the hairs, the careful search for these tiny eggs has given us the term "nitpicking".
The larger claws of the crab louse allow it to grasp the thicker pubic hairs.
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Overall, lice aren't the biggest health concenr humans face; on their own they do relatively little damage. The diseases they can transmit, however, can cause devastating epidemics and many deaths. Fleas below are adapted to live in mammals with thicker hair.
The comb-like structures help them hang on.