Journey's End Notes for GCSE Stanhope and Hibbert - Journey's End Notes for GCSE
Before the war, Raleigh and Stanhope had a strong relationship. as he manages to keep Hibbert in the company, instead of letting him walk away from the war. This Journey's End Notes article looks at the relationship between Stanhope and Hibbert for students studying the OCR and Edexcel GCSE. This is a low point in their relationship – why? Hibbert tries to delay joining the attack; Stanhope asks him to show Mason the way, thus forcing Hibbert to leave.
Describe the conflict and show how it is important to the development of the characterisation and theme of the play. Sherriff Page numbers from the Penguin Modern Classics edition Click here for an introduction and scene summaries. They would also understand it when soldiers like Stanhope and Osborne are seen having to follow orders, unable to disobey their commanding officers or change events.
We have to keep reminding ourselves that Stanhope is only three years older than Raleigh. Raleigh arrives with certain idealistic expectations about war. Osborne tries to preserve this image for him. It does not, however, stop him from doing his duty. The men are presented as worthy characters whose lives are sacrificed for no reasonably justifiable cause.
In the raid, seven men die and little information of any worth is extracted from the German prisoner. Sherriff himself won a Military Cross for bravery. He may not have set out to criticise the war but he does expose the truth in his play simply by showing how the men — as represented by the characters in the play — suffered both physically and emotionally.
Hibbert - Character analysis in GCSE English Literature
I wonder what it is they put in the water. Some sort of disinfectant, I suppose. They were frightfully annoyed. You get many rats here? Rugger and cricket seem a long way from here. Then we just start waiting again. Think of it all as — as romantic. We must have pepper. I never knew anything like a war for upsetting meals.
And your gas mask. I expect you do. The time passes, though. How did you feel — in the front line? About the breadth of a rugger field … I always measure distances like that out here.
Stanhope and Hibbert
Keeps them in proportion. I mean, outside the newspapers. Heroism There are many forms of heroism in the play. For him, war is an extension of school life.
Explore how sherriff presents the relationships between Osborne and Stanhope
Stanhope has a Military Cross. He has been at the front the longest. He is admired by his officers, despite his drinking. He volunteers for the raid knowing full well the dangers.
Despite his own heroism, it is his knowledge of the likelihood of death that makes him afraid for himself and others. He wants to protect Raleigh from the truth and preserve his view of him as a hero.
Stanhope is sure that Raleigh will reveal the truth in his letter — that is why he is determined to censor it.
Sheriff shows us both heroism and its cost. The colonel promised him the Military Cross — an award for bravery and heroism — but his courage comes at a terrible price.
At the end of the warBritish men and women had been killed and two million injured; 1, Germans were killed and four million injured. Like Stanhope, Sherriff views these men as worthy of loyalty and admiration. Osborne takes Raleigh under his wing, explaining to him what trench life is like. Trotter is equally welcoming. Osborne is close to many of the officers: That Raleigh and Stanhope knew each other at school and are family friends causes a great deal of conflict in the play but their bond is evident in the final scene when Raleigh is injured.
Public School and Class All the officers, except Trotter, have attended public schools and speak in an upper class accent. At the start of WWI only men who had been to public school could become commissioned officers but by the end of the war the traditional officer class no longer existed. It was possible to gain promotion without having been educated privately. The central focus on public school life — the rugby, cricket, schoolmasters — acts as a bond between the men and allows them to view life at the front as an extension of school life.Journey's End - Clip "War In Action" - on Digital 1 June & DVD 4 June
The importance of this shared background is clear: Osborne measures distances by relating them to rugby fields; Raleigh relates his fatal injury to the one he suffered playing rugby; Osborne is the wise, old housemaster, Stanhope, head boy, and Raleigh, the new boy who has to learn the rules.
Structure The three acts span four days. The confined time-span and setting and overwhelming feeling of doom help create a sense of unity in the play. Events do not fit neatly together nor do they lead naturally on to the next — such is the nature of war. There is a build up to a mini climax with the conflict over the letter which is resolved half way through Act II. The next complication is the raid. There is conflict between Hibbert and Stanhope.
Raleigh and Stanhope quarrel. In the final scene Raleigh dies — as, we assume, do the others. The mood of the play varies from moments of calm to tension, from light relief to drama, humour to sadness, and anger to peace.
The events of war are indicated through sounds and lighting. The war setting allowed him to include extremes of emotion which are only to be expected in stressful situations. Captain Dennis Stanhope — the son of a vicar and commander of C Company. He may be a heavy drinker but he clearly commands loyalty. However, it is obvious that his experiences at war have affected him both physically and psychologically.
According to the stage directions: That he cares for her and her opinion of him matters so much allows the audience to see another side of him. Stanhope has high standards. Hygiene, tidiness and order are important to him. We realise that he will not send men to do something that he himself would not do. We also realise that he will not tolerate cowards within his company, as he manages to keep Hibbert in the company, instead of letting him walk away from the war leaving his fellow men to die.
At this point he in convincing Hibbert to stay, by telling him: Despite being a good officer, he is a changed man to what he was before the war began.
- Journey's End
- How much of the emotion in the play comes from the relationship between Raleigh and Stanhope Paper
His father is the vicar of the small town in which he lived. He was known before for how he would not tolerate people drinking alcohol, this is shown when Raleigh talks about how Stanhope to Osborne early on in the play: Here he expresses his fear to Osborne, about what Raleigh may do: He knows he has a problem and that he will never be accepted back into his town if he is exposed, because the people there will not understand his problems, and that is why he has the sympathy of the audience.
He admits his weakness to Osborne by saying: One was pretending I was ill — and going home; the other was this. Raleigh also has the sympathy of the audience, because he has joined the war and in particular this company thinking that it will be an adventure. Instead the reason that persuaded him to come, Stanhope, rejects Raleigh leaving him feeling sad and lonely.
The audience can also relate to Raleigh because like him, they have no idea about the ugly things that occur during war. They realise he is vulnerable to all of these things, especially after Osborne dies. Go and inspect your rifles! The audience learns this when Stanhope orders his men to wire both sides of the trench, allowing no escape — an indication that they are going to fight until the last man.
It is poignant because the audience know that Raleigh and Stanhope are best friends who will die together and who will not be able to cherish their last few days together because Stanhope is not allowing himself to get too close to Raleigh. The poignancy is increased as Raleigh remains excited at the fact that he has come to spend the rest of the war with Stanhope, little does he know that they will only have three days with each other, and those days will not be as memorable or as well spent as he could hope.
It can be seen that Stanhope is actually trying to protect Raleigh but because he is unable he does not get too close to him.