Why You Shouldn't Trust A Philosopher's Love Advice | Here & Now
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and . This can be more easily understood when considering facticity in relation to the .. In a very short period of time, Camus and Sartre in particular became the .. the Socratic tradition with his own blend of philosophical counseling. Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre, two of the most important minds of the 20th century, were closely entwined throughout their careers. On the. Apart from his books, Albert Camus also liked writing love letters: he was When Olivier Todd once asked Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus' old.PHILOSOPHY - Sartre
The 'drowning woman' was Camus' second wife, Francine, who had a mental breakdown. As mother of his two children, Camus decided it would be more appropriate if her relationship with him was that of 'a sister', allowing him erotic freedom. For years she appeared to go along with this but then she cracked. Todd says that Francine said to her husband: The revelations in Todd's biography of Camus' womanising could hardly have come as a surprise to those who had read Camus' early non-fiction.
His reflections on Don Juanism in The Myth Of Sisyphus, written when he was 28, read like both a confession and a declaration of future policy: But Don Juan's love was liberating.
In DecemberCamus' womanising reached its apotheosis.
Camus and Sartre Friendship Troubled by Ideological Feud - SPIEGEL ONLINE
On the 29th, he wrote to his mistress announcing that he would shortly be returning to Paris from Lourmarin, where he had spent the summer with his wife and children: I am so happy at the idea of seeing you again that I am laughing as I write. Apart from the unremitting ardour, there was one thing remarkable about these letters: The first was to Mi, a young painter; the second to Catherine Sellers, an actress; the third to Maria Casares, an internationally famous actress with whom he had a liaison for 16 years; and the fourth was to an American, Patricia Blake.
When, over a period of five years, Olivier Todd got access to all of these letters, he faced a dilemma. Copyright of all Camus' letters is invested in his literary executor - his daughter, Catherine. But Catherine Camus raised no objections. Mi, who received the first of those December letters, was a young painter of Danish extraction.
Camus met her in the traditional way, picking her up at the Cafe Flore in Saint Germain des Pres in She was one of the rare females with whom he shared his other passion - football. Told that she had disappeared from circulation, Todd used a very unjournalistic device: She had married, had a daughter and divorced. She will still only be identified as Mi.
Camus had met Maria Casares, later star of Cocteau's Orpheus but already an established actress, in Daughter of a rich Spanish Republican, a refugee from Franco, she was a passionate, wilful, intelligent woman.
She was probably the only one of his lovers who had a relationship of equality with him. Casares, who died recently, wrote an autobiography in which she was candid about her celebrated relationship with Camus, but with a curious high-mindedness never quoted directly from his hundreds of letters. Like Pascalthey were interested in people's quiet struggle with the apparent meaninglessness of life and the use of diversion to escape from boredom.
Unlike Pascal, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche also considered the role of making free choices, particularly regarding fundamental values and beliefs, and how such choices change the nature and identity of the chooser. Nietzsche's idealized individual invents his own values and creates the very terms they excel under. By contrast, Kierkegaard, opposed to the level of abstraction in Hegel, and not nearly as hostile actually welcoming to Christianity as Nietzsche, argues through a pseudonym that the objective certainty of religious truths specifically Christian is not only impossible, but even founded on logical paradoxes.
Yet he continues to imply that a leap of faith is a possible means for an individual to reach a higher stage of existence that transcends and contains both an aesthetic and ethical value of life. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche were also precursors to other intellectual movements, including postmodernismand various strands of psychotherapy.
However, Kierkegaard believed that individuals should live in accordance with their thinking. Dostoyevsky[ edit ] The first important literary author also important to existentialism was the Russian Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Jean-Paul Sartrein his book on existentialism Existentialism is a Humanismquoted Dostoyevsky's The Brothers Karamazov as an example of existential crisis.
Sartre attributes Ivan Karamazov's claim, "If God did not exist, everything would be permitted"  to Dostoyevsky himself, though this quote does not appear in the novel. Dimitri mentions his conversations with Rakitin in which the idea that "Then, if He doesn't exist, man is king of the earth, of the universe" allowing the inference contained in Sartre's attribution to remain a valid idea contested within the novel.
Camus and his women | Books | The Guardian
Martin Heidegger In the first decades of the 20th century, a number of philosophers and writers explored existentialist ideas. The Spanish philosopher Miguel de Unamuno y Jugoin his book The Tragic Sense of Life in Men and Nations, emphasized the life of "flesh and bone" as opposed to that of abstract rationalism. Unamuno rejected systematic philosophy in favor of the individual's quest for faith.
He retained a sense of the tragic, even absurd nature of the quest, symbolized by his enduring interest in Cervantes ' fictional character Don Quixote.
A novelist, poet and dramatist as well as philosophy professor at the University of Salamanca, Unamuno wrote a short story about a priest's crisis of faith, Saint Manuel the Good, Martyrwhich has been collected in anthologies of existentialist fiction.
Another Spanish thinker, Ortega y Gassetwriting inheld that human existence must always be defined as the individual person combined with the concrete circumstances of his life: Sartre likewise believed that human existence is not an abstract matter, but is always situated "en situation". Although Martin Buber wrote his major philosophical works in German, and studied and taught at the Universities of Berlin and Frankfurthe stands apart from the mainstream of German philosophy.
Born into a Jewish family in Vienna inhe was also a scholar of Jewish culture and involved at various times in Zionism and Hasidism.
Camus and Sartre Friendship Troubled by Ideological Feud
Inhe moved permanently to Jerusalem. His best-known philosophical work was the short book I and Thoupublished in For Buber, the fundamental fact of human existence, too readily overlooked by scientific rationalism and abstract philosophical thought, is "man with man", a dialogue that takes place in the so-called "sphere of between" "das Zwischenmenschliche".
Shestov, born into a Ukrainian-Jewish family in Kiev, had launched an attack on rationalism and systematization in philosophy as early as in his book of aphorisms All Things Are Possible. Berdyaev, also from Kiev but with a background in the Eastern Orthodox Church, drew a radical distinction between the world of spirit and the everyday world of objects.
Human freedom, for Berdyaev, is rooted in the realm of spirit, a realm independent of scientific notions of causation.
To the extent the individual human being lives in the objective world, he is estranged from authentic spiritual freedom. Gabriel Marcellong before coining the term "existentialism", introduced important existentialist themes to a French audience in his early essay "Existence and Objectivity" and in his Metaphysical Journal Harmony, for Marcel, was to be sought through "secondary reflection", a "dialogical" rather than "dialectical" approach to the world, characterized by "wonder and astonishment" and open to the "presence" of other people and of God rather than merely to "information" about them.
For Marcel, such presence implied more than simply being there as one thing might be in the presence of another thing ; it connoted "extravagant" availability, and the willingness to put oneself at the disposal of the other.
For Marcel, philosophy was a concrete activity undertaken by a sensing, feeling human being incarnate—embodied—in a concrete world. In Germany, the psychologist and philosopher Karl Jaspers —who later described existentialism as a "phantom" created by the public  —called his own thought, heavily influenced by Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, Existenzphilosophie.