Abstract. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment and to investi- gate the moderating . Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction that satisfaction with relationships is an antecedent of commitment, which mediates its. Although numerous research works have been done to study the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction, no such research is still .Authentic Leadership /Job Satisfaction / Organizational Commitment / Talent Retention
The study, which included persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper.
In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction.
Introduction In the current climate of turbulent changes, companies have begun to realize that the employees represent their most valuable asset Glen, ; Govaerts et al. Satisfied and motivated employees are imperative for contemporary business and a key factor that separates successful companies from the alternative. When considering job satisfaction and work motivation in general, of particular interest are the distinctive traits of these concepts in transition economies.
Serbia is a country that finds itself at the center of the South East region of Europe SEEwhich is still in the state of transition. Here transition refers to the generally accepted concept, which implies economic and political changes introduced by former socialist countries in Europe and beyond e.
Serbia exemplifies many of the problems faced by the SEE region as a whole, but also faces a number of problems uniquely related to the legacy of its past. Due to international economic sanctions, the country was isolated for most of the s, and NATO air strikes, related to the Kosovo conflict and carried out incaused significant damage to the industry and economy.
Transitioning to democracy in OctoberSerbia embarked on a period of economic recovery, helped by the introduction of long overdue reforms, major inflows of foreign investment and substantial assistance from international funding institutions and others in the international community.
The central issue of the transition process in Serbia and other such countries is privatization of public enterprises, which in Serbia ran slowly and with a number of interruptions, failures and restarts Radun et al.
The process led the Serbian industry into a state of industrial collapse, i. The average growth of Serbia's GDP in the last 5 years was very low, at 0. The structure of the GDP by sector in was: Taking into account the specific adversities faced by businesses in Serbia, we formulated two main research questions as a starting point for the analysis of the problem of work motivation in Serbia: To what extent are the previously developed models of work motivation such as the model of Locke and Latham, applicable to the transition economy and business practices in Serbia?
What is the nature of the relationships between different segments of work motivation job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job involvement and work characteristics? The Hawthorn experiment, conducted in early s Mayo,spurred the interest of organizational behavior researchers into the problem of work motivation.
Although Hawthorn focused mainly on the problems of increasing the productivity and the effects of supervision, incentives and the changing work conditions, his study had significant repercussions on the research of work motivation. Moreover, studies by Green, Wu, Whitten and Medlin point out the impact strategic human resources management has upon individual performance, organizational commitment, and satisfaction levels for the work of human resources professionals, who were vertically aligned with organizational mission and goals, and horizontally aligned with other organizational functions.
Despite the fact that a relationship between commitment and satisfaction could be observed, the understanding that commitment and satisfaction are related is not a consensus, nor is the concept that satisfaction is the antecedent of commitment, or its consequence.
Starting from the opinion of Mathieu and Zajacwho presuppose that the two constructs are related due to the lack of clarity on the impact of satisfaction on commitment, this study aimed to analyze the relationships between antecedent variables and commitment, highlighting the role of satisfaction in the two main prediction models tested in this study.
Job Satisfaction In the international literature as well as in the Brazilian literature, significant attention has been paid to the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A brief review of the international literature on job satisfaction indicates the emergence of similar perspectives: Locke defends it as a pleasant or positive emotional state arising from the assessment of the job itself and from related experiences.
Cook, Hepworth, Wall and Warr and Cranny, Smith and Stone consider it to be an affective response arising from the analysis of actual results of an individual job, compared to those expected, desired, and required. Yoon and Thye consider that it can be construed as a sort of positive emotion that directs the organization.
Distinguishing affective commitment from job satisfaction, Kooij, Jansen, Dikkers and Lange affirm that while the former refers to positive feelings toward the organization, in general, the latter refers to positive feelings more specifically related to the job or position.
To analyze the relationship between work satisfaction and achievement, Zhang and Zheng test affective commitment as the mediator between satisfaction and performance at work, and tradition cultural values as the mediator between professional satisfaction and affective commitment.
They raise the hypothesis that affective organizational commitment intermediates the relationship between job satisfaction and professional performance, and examine how cultural values can moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and affective commitment, since both constructs reflect people's attitudes, which are generally fashioned by cultural values.
Moynihan and Pandey examine the effects of individual attributes, job characteristics, and organizational variables in three aspects, which are considered to be job motivation dimensions: Brooke, Russell and Price and commitment attitudes can be considered different constructs.
In the Brazilian literature, the job satisfaction construct is deemed complex and difficult to define, partly due to the fact that it is understood as a subjective state that can vary from person to person, from circumstance to circumstance, throughout the years for the same person, and is potentially subject to the influence of internal and external forces of the immediate work environment.
Martinez and Paraguay indicate that the most frequent conceptual processes refer to job satisfaction as synonymous with motivation, as n attitude, or as a positive emotional state. The authors consider that there is still a lack of consenus on concepts, and on theories or theoretical models of this construct.
Borges-Andrade and Pilati emphasize that the study of commitment holds advantages over the study of satisfaction, due to the fluctuations of the latter construct, and emphasize the failure, in research from recent decades, of satisfaction as a predictive variable.
The authors corroborate Bastos' perspectivewho argues that the study of commitment has been surpassing the study of satisfaction, by being a more stable measure, which can be a predictive factor of various human results in the work context.
For the development of this research, four studies on prison systems call our attention due to their similarity of contexts: Such attitudes have significant effects on these prison guards' intentions and behavior.
From the reviewed literature one can infer that job satisfaction holds a prominent position, mostly because of the assumptions prepared by managers and researchers, with respect to its decisive role in the worker behavior considered relevant to the organizations.
In this study we tried to broaden the understanding of its role in the models explaining organizational commitment. Research Models and Hypotheses Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson and Tatham state that the mediating effect of a variable is confirmed when the variable intervenes and facilitates the relationship between two related constructs. For our investigation of the possible mediation role of the satisfaction variable as an antecedent of organizational commitmentand its role as a consequent, two principal models were tested.
The first model is referred to as the Consequent Model CM and it is based on the assumption that satisfaction with rewards and interpersonal relations arises from commitment Figure 1.
The second model is referred to as the Antecedent Mediation Model AMMwhich is based on the assumption that satisfaction with rewards and interpersonal relations mediates the relationship between commitment and its antecedents creativity in the work context, realistic initial expectations, variety of tasks, scope of work, and tension. This model is set forth in Figure 2. To test satisfaction's mediation role, following the recommendations in Hair et al. Thus, two models were additionally tested: The first three hypotheses of this study address the direct relationship between the antecedent variables investigated and organizational commitment.
Meyer and Allen's review provides support for the assumption that variables related to work and to context influence organizational commitment. The three dimensions of job characteristics tension at work, variety of tasks, and scope of work predict organizational commitment, with tension at work having a negative coefficient and the others positive coefficients. Creativity in the work context positively affects organizational commitment.
Thus, it is expected that the more realistic the initial expectations, the greater the possibility of fulfillment and the greater the impact on organizational commitment. Realistic initial expectations positively affect organizational commitment.
Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: What Are the Potential Relationships?
The meta-analyses conducted by Mathieu and Zajac and Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch and Topolnytsky show the relationship between satisfaction and commitment. These studies found higher scores for the relationship between satisfaction with colleagues and organizational commitment than that between satisfaction with pay and commitment.
The dimensions of satisfaction investigated in this study positively affect organizational commitment. Satisfaction with interpersonal relationships has greater impact on commitment than satisfaction with rewards.
Riketta and Van Dick argue that, despite the number of studies concerned with the logical order of the relationship between commitment and satisfaction, the results are still inconsistent. Thus there is no consensus in the literature about the order of this relationship. In this study, we assume that, although there are significant relationships between the variables investigated and commitment, these relationships are facilitated by satisfaction variables, which clarifies their mediation role.
This leads to the last two hypotheses of this study: The model that considers satisfaction as antecedent presents better fit than the model that considers satisfaction as consequent. The impact of antecedents on commitment is reduced when satisfaction is included, indicating the latter assumes a mediating role in the relationship between commitment and its antecedents.
Methodological Aspects of the Research To carry out this study, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed; the former aiming to assess the relationships between the variables measured, and the latter serving to contextualize and aid comprehension of the results found.
In this study, the context being investigated is quite specific. We observe that at this institution, after nearly years of existence, the organization's role has changed. Despite this central change, it has longstanding cultural characteristics, such as the values of tradition, hierarchy, and discipline. Monjardet argued that the military institution is quite similar to the classical organization called scientific management, with a well-defined chain of command and top-down decision-making.
The specific nature of the military police explains the qualitative step in this study. Although this step is not directly linked to our central goal, it helps toward understanding the impact context has on the results. Qualitative step - I The qualitative analysis served to contextualize and aid comprehension of the results found, through interviews, a focus group, observations and questionnaires. It was subdivided into two parts: Oliveira and Freitas characterize it as a data collection technique that, when used concomitantly with other methods, can help clarify the results obtained and explain the phenomenon behind such results.
Morgan considers it to be an intermediate technique between participatory observation and the open interview, without the replacement of one technique by the other.
The focus group makes explicit use of group interaction, with respect to a theme, in a limited time period. In this group, the goal is to elicit the plurality of ideas, which enables the researcher to broaden the understanding of the answers obtained.
Therefore, the interviews and the focus group were aimed at revealing the culture that permeates the social fabric of this corporation, in order to better understand the map of relationships established between commitment and the remaining variables.
Thus, organizational culture serves as a background for interpreting quantitative results.