Quakers and indians relationship

quakers and indians relationship

Penn's relationship with Native Americans should be viewed in specific manner. . And even more interestingly, Quakers were spared the vengeance of Indians. Colonial politics, mercantilism and, eventually, the outright greed of some Quakers confused Indian groups as did the poor relations between. The icon of the encounter between Quakers and the Indians is Kingdom requires us to have peaceful and just relationship with the first.

This caused many non-Quaker Europeans to resent the association. The new charity was intended to be as conspicuous as possible-to both Indians and Europeans-and therefore serve as a shining example of how intercultural relations could be conducted. Inthe Munsee prophet Papounhan and 30 of his followers visited Philadelphia and asked to see the Friends Quakers about religion.

Unlike other Christian groups, the Quakers did not condemn Indian religions.

quakers and indians relationship

He felt that the Delaware were already communing with the divine light inside them and he sought spiritual tutelage from the Indians. The plan was to introduce among the Indians what the Europeans felt were the necessary arts of civilization, including animal husbandry and the mechanical arts. The following year, the Quakers began their Indian plan by sending tools to most of the Indian nations of the eastern United States.

Following their Indian plan, five Quakers arrived at the Seneca town of Jenuchshadago in The Seneca, under the leadership of Cornplanter, were hungry because floods and frost had damaged their corn harvest.

Quakers and Indians

After consideration of the Quaker request to live among them and teach them, Cornplanter told them: The Quakers concentrated on teaching some of the young people how to read and write in English and to teach men and women modern farming techniques. They incorporated moral advice into their practical instruction. In this way, the Quakers attempted to persuade the Seneca to be sober, clean, punctual, industrious: Inthe Quaker missionary William Kirk supervised the Ohio Shawnee as they cleared acres and planted new crops such as potatoes, cabbage, and turnips.

The Shawnee purchased breeding stock hoping that hogs and cattle would eventually supply them with the meat they used to get through hunting. While Kirk was successful in teaching the Shawnee the European methods of farming, he was lax with his paperwork. Having failed to file financial statements with Washington, his mission was terminated by the government. When Kirk left, the Shawnee lost their primary source of technical advice and their experiment in agriculture waned.

LA Quaker: William Penn and the Indians

Red Jacket trusted few persons other than the Quakers, who could not be intimidated and who were quick to expose a fraud. However, the Quakers were involved with helping the Onondaga and did not have any resources with which they could respond to the Seneca request. Two years later, Red Jacket repeated his request and this time the Quakers provided the Seneca with both farm equipment and sound advice. In Oklahoma, the Comanche and Kiowa were assigned to the Quakers and the army was removed from the reservation.

However, they were correct in assessing that the Iroquois held the most power, though Penn thought that politics, at least dealing with Indians, were local so he favored the less militarily powerful Delaware. What is less assuredly myth--or fact--is whether Penn ever signed a 'Great Treaty' in at the village of Shackamaxon.

quakers and indians relationship

As we have seen, for many Americans and non-Americans such as Voltaire this deed proved the most inspiring 'event' of Penn's life. Francis Jennings believes that Penn signed the treaty and never broke it, but that his less scrupulous successors destroyed the document, presumably so that they could renege on its provisions.

And there do exist several references to this chain being made between Penn and the Delaware. Penn paid a total of pounds for the land, which though a large sum, was probably fair for both sides. Penn took the advice of Dutch and Swedish colonists who had already set some parameters for treaty agreements These earlier settlers provided invaluable assistance in delineating who to contact, and who to pay for the land.

On the other side of the 'covenant chain', the Delaware had many years of negotiating such treaties, and were ready to sell their land to Penn, on their terms.

quakers and indians relationship

Disease had decimated much of their population so they needed less of the land near Philadelphia, and at the time there was plenty of un-occupied space to the North and West of the future city.

As well, the Indian's 'ownership' of the land, was not as 'savagely simple' as had been assumed. They worked with a complex arrangement of overlapping 'right's to use certain areas, and rights to dispose of these obligations.

quakers and indians relationship

So Penn may have had to pay several times to the same holder in order to clear all claims. He was not 'duped' into paying several times for the same property. Though Penn was generally fair in his purchases, he also had to be a shrewd businessman, especially as he competed with Lord Baltimore for territorial rights. He out-maneuvered Maryland agents in his purchases, thus insuring that his future city would not be largely subsumed by its southern neighbor.

Penn had competitors to the North as well.

Penn and the Indians

And any northern land transactions meant tangling with New York State for land, and perhaps more importantly, trading rights with the Iroquois Confederacy. To secure new routes to the interior and more trade with the Five Nations, Penn tried to purchase a large piece of land on the Susquehanna River.

Pennsylvania could then have a trading post closer to the Iroquois than was Albany. However, New York State merchants beat Penn to the punch by using their comfortable relations with the Confederacy to claim the land--as a 'gift' from the Iroquois nonetheless--before Penn. Penn ultimately did gain access to the Susquehanna region, though he had to wait until By that time New York State governor Dongan, who had convinced the Iroquois to cede the land to him rather than to Penn, was gone.

Penn's fortunes were also helped by the Iroquois' defeat by the French and their Native allies. As well, the French and Indian wars allowed the Susquehanock Indians to move back to their old homes at Conestoga, vacating much of the land that Penn sought.

So byhe could purchase the land without difficulty. The treaty of is both the first full treaty text that remains extant there exist parts of earlier onesand the last agreement brokered directly by Penn rather than his agents.

It also capped a major power play: As he had done before, Penn rewarded 'his' Indians. His policies helped make Pennsylvania, in the words of the missionary John Heckewelder, "the last, delightful asylum" for Native Americans Jennings, Penn's successors were much less fair and scrupulous in dealing with the Indians.