GK Quiz On Ancient Indian History With Answers: Set 1 - ProProfs Quiz
The period assigned to Ajatshatru's rule is BC to BC. He was confiscated Kashi, which was given as a gift to Kosaladevi in marriage. Ajatshatru was born in BC that is approx years before Maurya He was son of King Bimbisar perhaps this causes confusion as King Bindusar of Maurya dynasty was father of Ashoka. Related Questions (More Answers Below). He expanded his territory but also enjoyed peaceful relations with most if not all of his peers. Bimbisara may have laid two foundations on which Ashoka could it under the viceroyalty of his son Ajatashatru, with its capital at Champa. local king exactly as the Buddha had answered the same questions.
It further dates his second campaign against Vajjis in BC. Based on the same, A. Basham dates the first campaign of Ajatashatru in BC. The account of Ajatashatru's birth is more or less similar in both the traditions.
It is worthwhile to note that both the queens were called "Vaidehi" in both the traditions. Inscribed image of Ajatashatru. According to the Jain Nirayavalika Sutra, during her pregnancy Queen Chelna had the strong desire to eat fried flesh of her husband's heart and drink liquor.
Meanwhile, the very intelligent Prince Abhayakumara, son of King Bimbisara and Queen Nanda, fried a wild fruit that resembled a heart and gave it to the queen. The queen ate it and later felt ashamed for having such a demonic desire and she feared that the child might grow up and prove fatal for the family, thus after a few months of the child being born, the queen had him thrown out of the palace.
When the child was lying near the garbage dump, a cock bit his little finger. King Bimbisara, learning about the child being thrown out, ran outside and picked up the child and put its bleeding little finger in his mouth and sucked it until it stopped bleeding and continued this for days until it was healed.
As the little finger of the child was sore, he was nicknamed Kunika "Sore Finger". Later he was named Asokacanda. Death of his father[ edit ] The Jaina tradition[ edit ] Once Ajatashatru was eating his meal with his newborn son in his lap, his son suddenly urinated, of which some drops fell onto his plate but due to affection for his child he did not change the plate but wiped the drops with his own patta cloth on the shoulder and continued to eat from the same plate.
After eating a morsel he asked his mother Chellana, who was sitting in the same dining room, whether she had ever seen a father as loving and caring as he was, to which his mother narrated the story of King Bimbisara sucking Ajatshatru's little finger. This touched his heart and his affection for his father was aroused. At once he picked up an axe and hurried to the prison to free his father by breaking all the iron chains himself. But when Bimbisara saw him coming with an axe in his hand he thought, It is better that I end my life with my own hands.
At once he removed the Talaputa poison from his ring, closed his eyes and chanted "Kevli pannato Dhammam saranam pavajyami" I seek refuge in the dharma taught by the kevlins or omniscient and swallowed the poison and ended his life.
Ajatashatru repented a lot but it was of no use. Ajatashatru then moved his palace to Champa and made it his capital as the previous palace reminded him of his atrocious mistake. The Buddhist tradition[ edit ] There are different versions existing in Buddhist Texts on the death of King Bimbisara. In one version, Ajatashatru allowed no one but Kosala Devi to meet Bimbisara in the smokey cell. Ajatashatru wanted to starve him to death, as Devadatta had said "father cannot be killed by a weapon.
When she was caught once again Ajatashatru prohibited Kosala Devi from meeting the king. When Ajatashatru saw that the king was not dying even then he ordered a barber to pierce the king's legs with a knife, then pour salt, hot oil and fire made from khaira wood on him.
When this was done the king died. In an alternate version, Ajatashatru had King Bimbisara imprisoned and tried to starve him to death. Kosala Devi took food to King Bimbisara, but was found out and stopped from visiting him any more.
Bimbisara grew weak, but he derived comfort from looking at the mountain where The Buddha and his disciples resided. So Ajatashatru asked that his cell windows be covered so that King Bimbisara could not see the mountain.
One day, the Buddha visited the city and Bimbisara could see him and his disciples through the holes in his door.मगध साम्राज्य-- magadha empire ancient indian history for ssc/bank/railway and other govt exam
Because Bimbisara saw Buddha and his disciples, he derived comfort and continued to live. After knowing this, Ajatashatru ordered that Bimbisara's feet be skinned. After this, King Bimbisara could not move, and so he lay in bed getting weaker. Then one day, King Ajatashatru was having meal with his mother, Kosala Devi. He had a son, who was playing with a puppy. Ajatashatru asked, 'Where are you now? The prince arrived, but did not want to eat. King Ajatashatru asked, 'Why do you not want to eat?
King Ajatashatru told his mother,'I did a difficult thing. Why do I say that?
I am a king, and because I love my son, I had my meal together with dogs. There are people who eat dog meat, so what is strange in giving food to dogs? Do you know that your father did difficult things? You could not sleep for nights because of the pain. Your father held you on his lap and sucked on your finger. Your father had a soft body, so you could sleep well. Because of the warmth of his mouth, your wound's pus broke out.
Your father thought that if he spat out the pus, it would increase your pain, so he swallowed the pus. Your father did such difficult thing for you. Kosala Devi thought that he had agreed to release his father, so the palace released this news. Everywhere in the city, people heard that Bimbisara was going to be released, so everyone was happy and went to the jail saying. I do not know what else he will do to hurt me. She saw Halla and Vihalla kumaras with their wives sitting on Sechanaka elephant and one of the wives wearing the 18 fold divine necklace.
Then she heard one of the maidservants speaking from the garden below "It's Halla and Vihalla kumaras and not the king who enjoy the real pleasures of the kingdom" and she thought "what's the use of the kingdom if I do not have both the jewels in my possession? Ajatashatru at last agreed and sent a request to both his brothers to give the elephant and the necklace to him, which both his brothers denied saying that these gifts were given by their dear father so why should they part from them?
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Ajatashatru sent the request thrice but got the same reply all three times. This annoyed him a lot, so he sent his men to arrest them. Ajatashatru sent notice thrice to Chetaka to surrender them but was denied by Chetaka.
This was enough for Ajatashatru. Each Kalakumara brought horses, elephants, chariots and infantrymen each. On the other hand, Chetaka invited his own allies 9 Mallas, 9 Lichhvis and 18 kings of Kasi-Kosala to fight his grandson Ajatashatru. All these kings came with horses, elephants, chariots and infantrymen each. Thus all together there were elephants, chariots, horses, and infantrymen. King Chetaka was a devout follower of Lord Mahavira and had a vow to not shoot more than one arrow per day in a war.
He urged the population to literacy and so, to read them! He erected so many Buddhist monasteries Viharas around Patna that the whole province became known as Vihara, now Bihar. He made pilgrimages to almost all the hallowed places connected with the life of the Buddha, and lasting monuments were erected to mark those historic spots.
Even the slaughtering of animals for food in the palace was slowly reduced and eventually stopped, and, most excellently, he forbade all animal sacrifice in his empire. As Pandit Nehru says: He brought about a cultural revolution. Ashoka was interested not only in the moral development of his people, but also their material development. He treated all his subjects as his own family.
- Bimbisara, King
- EMPEROR ASHOKA OF INDIA Some Information Revealed
An indication of his willingness promote the public good is given when he said: Work I must for the common weal. In his time public gardens, medicinal herbs, hospitals for people and for animals, too, wells dug, roads and educational institutions were built all over his empire. To his eternal credit it should be said that it was Ashoka who, for the first time in the history of the world, established hospitals for humans and also built hospitals for animals, too, and it is claimed not only in Asia but also where his missionaries went — even Eastern Europe and North Africa.
The Venerable Monks and their destinations were: Each mission consisted of five Theras so that it would be possible to perform the Upasampada ceremony for Monks in remote districts.
He initiated the practice of sending diplomats to foreign countries and in return regularly received envoys at Pataliputra from friendly countries. He recorded history, and so was one of the earliest historians, judging by his lengthy and elaborate discussion on various subjects, with minute details all carved on the durable surface of his rocks. His awareness of the need to record the important events in history helps one understand his responsible attitude to rule.
He would have developed many good ideas from his posting at Taxila as a young man. The fact is that the Emperor had an active mind, he was educated. His progressive ideas would have been formed with the help of the people who he came in contact with — Buddhists, both military and civilian, and Buddhist scholars — especially those he met early on in his life. He was unique in that he and his brothers all worked to develop the Empire using Buddhist ideals of equality, kindness to help people to lead better lives.
They were acting in accordance to the teachings of Gautama, The Buddha, of which, it can be said Ashoka became an embodiment. He made the ideals of the Buddha-Dhamma a reality. What the Buddha had preached, the Emperor had practiced himself and urged others to practice, too. He brought the Buddhist ethos alive all over a vast territory from Afghanistan and India to the border of Burma. This had its effects on the literacy of the people and expanded the domain of knowledge in the society.
The number of Universities founded rose to nine — nine great residential Universities. Now, the whole of India and Afgahnistan is now littered with archeological sites; for example the Bhumiyan Bamiyan site was developed which had three great, golden Buddha statues and hundreds of dwelling places for monks; and so for many other sites.
The Buddhist ethos shaped the culture, religion, polity, politics and social interaction of the common people of this enormous expanse of land for a thousand years.
While on the one side of Buddhism there was the concept of knowledge leading to wisdom, the other side of the coin was the virtue of Loving Kindness, Compassion, Sympathetic joy, and Equanimity. The feeling of belonging together or to one group or oneness emerges out of the high degree of feelings of association. Without this feeling of oneness the concept of equality between men is never welcome. The Impact of Buddhism on Ashoka and his Administration Many Indian historians mistakenly believe that simply as a result of the Kalinga war, emperor Ashoka embraced Buddhism.
Thence arises the remorse of His Sacred Majesty for having conquered the Kalinga, because the conquest of the country previously unconquered, involved the slaughter, death, and carrying away of captive slaves of the people.
That is a matter of profound regret to His Sacred Majesty. No doubt about it, all that bloodshed and misery would have hardened his resolve to make amends. However, if we accept this event as the single cause of conversion to Buddhism then we have to ignore other important anecdotal evidence regarding the previous influence of Buddhism on Ashoka.
From this other evidence it is clear, he did not convert due to the bloodshed of war — he was a Buddhist right from his early years and that is the real reason why he had the depth of knowledge to make such a great contribution to the propagation and practice of Buddhism.
The Life and Times of Emperor Ashoka To know the reason for the deep remorse, at the sight of all those killed in battle, we need to go back in history. We suggest the reason was due to the social setting of the time. During the reign of the Mauryas all Indian and Afghan society, everywhere was egalitarian and the ethos of the contemporary society was simply nothing more than a set of high ideals; of harmlessness, humanitarian ideals and the teachings of Gautam the Buddha.
Gautam was born in BCE. He attained Mahaparinibbana after 80 years. Within a very short period, the luminous glow of his teachings of harmlessness and knowledge: So the glorious chanting of the Trisarana: Buddhism, Young Ashoka and his Remorse A psychological reaction can be observed in the Emperor after the sight of the carnage of war.
This was undoubtedly due to his up-bringing in a Buddhist environment. This environment arose from some important events in India, as follows.
The second Buddha Sangeeti was held at Vaishali during the reign of his son, Kalasok. Following kings Pasenjit and Bimbisara who were contemporary to Gautam Buddha, after them almost all the Indian rulers were Buddhists. The whole society was charged, fired up with an active culture of Buddhist practice and gracious behaviour Shramana-dharma -esp. Oddly, young Ashoka, the son of the emperor Bindusara had a regal introduction to the destructiveness and cruelty of high office when he ordered royal executions.
An ambitious king knows no bounds in celebrating his victory in war, but after the war with the Kalingas —? The paramount potentate, instead of celebrating victory through wanton and reckless festivities by rolling in wine and woman, instead broke down with remorse as if it was he who was defeated in the war. It is clear that Buddhism was deeply ingrained in him from an early age. So, it is not true to say that he converted to Buddhism after being so shocked at the sight of bloodshed and death, but it can be conceded that his faith in, and pursuit of Buddhist ideals were strengthened by the bloodshed.
The emperor has recorded a part of his life in one of his Rock Edicts. The Minor Rock Edict I reads: But a year ago, in fact more than a year ago, I entered the Order, and since then have exerted myself strenuously. For instance when Prince Ashoka was the governor of Ujjain he used to come to the capital via the trade route passing through Vidisa.
According to the Buddhist tradition, the adventurer prince became enamored with a beautiful daughter of a Banker of Vidisa. The advances of the Prince were rebuffed by the girl by the name of Devi. Her good character and strong inner qualities required her to refuse to marry the prince until he changed his unruly way of life into a life of discipline similar to the disciplined one, the Buddha. Devi herself was a disciple of the Buddha. Ashoka accepted these demands to follow Buddhism and they were united.
It is said that Devi produced two children: Later on, Ashoka ordered the building of the massive Sanchi Stupa or Dagaba amidst the natural beauty of the surroundings, on the hill top of the Vidisa Diri.
It is believed that because of the pious desire and warm patronage of Queen Devi, the Vidisa region in Patna, became a very important Buddhist center with many Stupas, such as Satadhara, etc. Brahmanism at a Low Ebb This was a period when the esteem and influence of Brahminical Social Order and the power of the Brahmins was at its lowest ebb. All over India the Sudras were ruling. Nandas of the barber Sudra dynasty were ruling the country with absolute supremacy.
Srimad Bhagwat lamented the Brahmin plight in no uncertain terms: These ten kings, the Sishunagas, alone will rule over the earth for three hundred and sixty years during the age of Kali. O jewel among the Kurus! O king will be certain Nanda, who will win a huge army or untold riches and will bring about the ruin of the Kshatriya race.
Thence forward, the rulers of men will be mostly Sudras and the unrighteous: When Magasthenes, the Hellenic envoy visited India he failed to find any trace of the Brahminical social hierarchy, the caste system.
He described in his account only seven socio-economic groups who formed the social strata. They were as follows: This absence or untraceable condition of Brahmin-Sudra caste strata system was definitely a result of the predominance of a caste-less Shramana culture in the country.
But for the existence of such powerful Shramana culture it would not have been feasible for the lowest of the low born to displace the Brahmin-Kshatriya combine from power politics. Brahmanism fights back The Buddha told the truth as it was. He challenged the recently composed Vedas, the books at the bedrock of Brahmanism.
The Brahmins became enemies; they were opposed to the Buddha, not so much against his philosophical teachings as they were to his message of universal brotherhood and equality. This was because it directly challenged their positions of power over the people and the scriptures they had invented to legitimize their power.
Divinity is immortal and transcendental. But in the real world, the world where men and women actually live their lives, time, date and place are a reality to be counted and recorded, and cannot realistically be pushed into a metaphysical limbo. So, Ashoka was the first man in the history of human civilization who scrupulously maintained a record of time and place in his edicts. But, as a result his legacy of good deeds was subjected to the forces of nihilism in ancient India.
Now, India is a land of restricted education. According to their own stipulations, only the Brahmins — the elite — the ruling class, were entitled to full-fledged education.
Gk Quiz On Ancient Indian History With Answers: Set 1
This elevated them, so they were able to thrive on the ignorance of others. Sudras were denied the right to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge. And according to the Brahminical culture, writing factual history was totally forbidden. The only disciplines that they encouraged were the unseen spiritual, belief-ridden and speculative literature, full of myth and imaginary tales. As an example of the parlous state of recording Indian history: On their destruction it is the Mauryas that will rule the earth during the kali age, the very Brahmin will install Chandragupta on the throne.
His son indeed will be Warisara and Ashokavardhana will be born to the letter. Other Priests made such brief and misleading and obscure statements on the past revealing nothing useful of actual history. These obscure statements give us no clues as to the true grandeur of ancient India and its relationships with the outside world.
It was a huge puzzle. Who was it who had ordered the erection of all these robust pillars with edicts, rock pillars which have withstood all the destructive events that nature and even human destructive attempts, could throw at them through the centuries?
The historians of yore failed to give the name of the India King who has done all this work of recording the tales and happenings of the contemporary India on innumerable polished surface of the hills, caves and rocks.
So it was extremely difficult for historians of the nineteenth century to identify this Piyadassi, the name was unknown to Indian literature and unknown to any reference work or dictionary. But it was available in the Buddhist chronicles in Ceylon. When Indians themselves, had destroyed their own sources of Indian history then the true history of India could only be recovered from whatever sources could be found outside India. It can be observed that, ironically, it was Ashoka who had created these foreign sources.
Only foreigners were willing and able to reveal the true history of India. Foreigners using foreign sources, worked to solve the puzzles of Indian history. It all started when European civilians who came to administer India, of their own volition, took the burden of unearthing the buried truth of Indian history. This was the start of a great adventure to get answers to the mystery!