The Leadership Challenge book has sold more than 2 million copies worldwide. It is based on the simple idea that leaders, teams, and organizations improve the leadership skills and effectiveness of any leader, regardless of position. develop the skills needed to meet whatever leadership challenges lay ahead. Effective groups: concepts and skills to meet leadership challenges. Mark. Cannon , Book, -, Item in place Series: Education leadership series. Effective Groups: Concepts and Skills to Meet Leadership Challenges (Peabody Brian A. Griffith, James W. Guthrie: Books - balamut.info
Some of their strong points include: A team broadens what individuals can do. Team members gain from the fact that being part of a group makes it possible to do things they couldn't necessarily do alone. A good team supports and enhances the skills and learning of its members, and brings out the best in them. Humans are, after all, social animals, and, as a species, we've worked in teams for a long time.
Try killing and butchering a mammoth single-handedly. Several heads mean a wider range of ideas. Teams can be more imaginative than individuals, and come at things from a larger number of perspectives. Teams can have a greater array of talents and skills than can be found in a single individual. That obviously increases both their effectiveness and the variety of what they can address. Team members learn new skills from their colleagues. This increases their own range, and also constantly broadens the team's capabilities.
Teamwork is more efficient than a number of individuals working solo. The members of a good team know how to assign tasks to the appropriate people, and how to coordinate what they're doing for the maximum effect.
Teamwork provides relief when someone is having a problem. There is always backup and help available, and the stress is less because you're not the only one doing the job.
By the same token, the fact that each member knows he's responsible to others works to make him more effective. No one wants to let others down, or to be seen as the weak link. When a team is working well, all its members are aware of their parts in the overall mission, and try to make sure that others' work isn't wasted because of them.
Concepts of Leadership
A team member has more ownership of what she's doing. She's involved in the planning of the team's actions, and she can see how her job fits into the larger purpose of the team and the organization.
She doesn't feel like she's working in a vacuum. Good teams can build leaders. They give everyone a chance to show what he can do, and to exercise leadership when that's appropriate. A shared vision keeps everyone moving forward. That's a pretty impressive array of strengths, but there are weaknesses as well.
Team decision-making takes longer than individual decision-making, and can be a great deal more difficult. Depending upon the task or problem, team effort can be wasted effort. Some things can be more easily dealt with by individuals. The team's success may hang on the work of the weakest or least effective team member. Once a team gets rolling in a particular direction, even if it's the wrong direction, it develops momentum.
It may be harder for a team than for an individual to get back on a better track. Especially at the beginning when members are still getting familiar with one another, the work of teams can bog down in interpersonal issues, resentments, and blame. On the other hand, once team members are bonded and committed to one another and the team, they may be reluctant to tell others when their work is unsatisfactory or to point out that the team isn't getting anywhere. Individuals on the team may lose motivation because of the lack of individual recognition for the value of their work.
The balance between team effort and individual recognition is a delicate one. A question that could be asked here is "Why build teams, as opposed to groups? Its members may have very little connection to one another, may care little or nothing about actually accomplishing the goal, and may have no interest in the goal itself or its implications.
A group may provide some of the advantages ascribed to teams above, but that's not a given. It is a given that it won't have a common vision, and that it probably will have most of the disadvantages that teams can have. A group becomes a team when it has created a commonly-held vision, developed a sense of itself as a team, dedicated itself to the quality of its accomplishment, embraced mutual accountability, and become invested in its goal and purpose.
A team becomes a "high-performance team," in Katzenbach and Smith's view, with the addition of the commitment of members to one another's personal growth and success.
Effective groups : concepts and skills to meet leadership challenges (Book, ) [balamut.info]
And it is that commitment that can create some of the greatest benefits a team can offer. Social psychologists have looked at the differences between the ways people perform when there are others around and when there aren't. From these observations have come some general guidelines for when a team is likely to be more effective than an individual.
Some of the most important are: The people in the team, in general, have the skills to tackle the task at hand. The task requires the complementary skills of a number of people.
The task specifically requires several people moving a piano, for instance. The success of the task is not based on the performance of the weakest team member. Team members have experience working in teams. The perceived importance of the task is high. Group commitment to the task is high. Not all of these conditions need to be obtained for a team to be a good choice, but some should. The more of them that are present, the more likely that a team will be successful.
By the same token, the negatives of these guidelines e. Given those guidelines, a team can be used in almost any situation that requires the work of several people. There are, however, some particular times when teams might work especially well.
Creating a strategic plan for addressing community issues. A participatory approach to planning would involve building a community team to develop a strategic plan. Starting up a new organization or initiative. You might form a community team to plan for a new entity.
Starting a new program or intervention within an organization or initiative. A community team might plan or begin to implement a new intervention. Once again, a community team might be helpful in getting a new coalition planned and going. Planning and carrying out a community assessment. A diverse team to plan, communicate with the community, gather and analyze information, and report on findings would make for an accurate and efficient assessment.
Evaluating an organization, initiative, or intervention. Evaluation is often best accomplished by a team of evaluators who bring different perspectives to the process. Spearheading an advocacy campaign with a specific goal. Here, a team to handle communication, outreach to the community, and contact with legislators and other policy makers could make all the difference.
Running a fundraising event or campaign. Staffing and running an organization or initiative. Staff members might be organized into teams with each team having responsibility for some area of the work of the entity.
Another possibility here, especially in smaller organizations, is that the whole staff functions as a single team, working toward a shared vision. Engaging in ongoing advocacy. A team approach might make advocacy more effective, especially if team members represent different elements of the population. Performing a particular function within a community program or initiative. Many health and human service organizations form teams to address specific issues or populations.
A health clinic might have a physician, a social worker, a nurse -midwife, one or two physician's assistants or nurse practitioners, and some RNs all working together as a team to assess and treat families.
Mental health centers often take a team approach, with a case manager and several therapists serving a number of people. Child care providers, teachers especially in middle schools, where the team approach is standardstreet outreach workers, and others often also work in this way. Changing the community over the long term. Community organizing and community development are long-term processes. They're often difficult and frustrating, and they rely on the dedication of those engaged in the work.
A team approach not only makes more activity possible, it keeps everyone involved aware of what everyone else is doing. This means that the team can be more efficient and not duplicate services, and that it has the ability to change what it's doing as new information comes in. Mutual support can also add to a team's effectiveness and staying power over the long haul. Every good team is not the same, but really good ones often have a number of similar characteristics.
In their book, Organizing Genius: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Here are their 15 "Take Home Lessons" pp. Greatness starts with superb people. Those who see things differently, have a knack for finding interesting and important problems, have skill in problem solving, see connections, and are "deep generalists" with broad interests and multiple frames of reference.
Great Groups and great leaders create each other. The best leaders create and maintain situations in which others can make a difference.
Every Great Group has a strong leader. Leaders might act as "pragmatic dreamers" with original but attainable visions, as "curators" who recognize and select for excellence in others, as coordinators of volunteer associations around "great projects," or as "conductors" who understand the work and what it takes to produce it. Bennis and Biederman base their conclusions on the six teams they studied. In other cases, successful teams have functioned well with collaborative leadership of various sorts.
It is probably fair to say that some sort of leadership is necessary, and it may be that a single strong leader is the most effective embodiment of that leadership. Leaders of Great Groups love talent and know where to find it. Talented people smell out places full of promise and energy where the future is being made. Leaders help connect groups to networks of people, ideas, and resources that enhance the group's work. More diverse networks increase the chances that new connections will be made.
Participants know that their inclusion in the group is a sign of excellence. Great Groups are full of talented people who can work together. Members accept their responsibilities to share information and advance the work. They tolerate personal idiosyncrasies, and try to be good colleagues who advance the common purpose.
Great Groups think they are on a mission from God. Members believe that they are doing something vital. The work is more a crusade than a job. A powerful vision helps them see losses as sacrifice. Their clear, collective purpose makes everything they do seem meaningful and valuable. Members of older generations tell newer ones what they are doing and why, and how new members can contribute. Every Great Group is an island, but an island with a bridge to the mainland.
People trying to change the world need to be isolated from it, free from its distractions, yet able to tap into its resources. The work should be intense and fun. Great Groups see themselves as winning underdogs.
5 Challenges to Leadership Effectiveness
They are Davids slinging fresh ideas at Goliath. They see themselves as wily opponents in the face of bigger competitors. Great Groups always have an enemy. They are involved in a "War on Drugs" or a "War on Poverty. People in Great Groups have blinders on. They have a passion for the task at hand. They are unusually devoted to the work. Great Groups are optimistic, not realistic. They are talented people who believe that they will accomplish great things together.Learn how to manage people and be a better leader
The difficulty of the task adds to its joy. In Great Groups the right person has the right job. Talented people are allowed to do the work they are best suited to doing. The leaders of Great Groups give them what they need and free them from the rest. Leaders help bring in a "worthy challenge," a task that enables people to use their talents fully.
They provide the tools needed for the work, and help share information and ideas by convening weekly colloquia in which problems and dilemmas are addressed and new ideas are explored. They help members manage stress, model and support a climate of civility, and protect the group from the broader institution and environment. They are places of action, not merely think tanks. They do hands-on work that delivers products and services by deadlines. Great work is its own reward.
They are engaged in solving hard, meaningful problems. The work matters to people -- to those served and to those doing it How do you build a team? Building a good team involves a great deal more than simply choosing members. That's only the first step, and you may not even have the chance to do that if you're working with an already-existing group. Developing and communicating a vision, planning the team's mission to match the vision, working out how people will function together, and then fine-tuning it over time are only some of the other elements of team building.
The following are guidelines, and are not meant to be a step-by-step guide to team building. Some elements of the process may get worked out over time in the course of the team's activities. Others may reach critical points and be dealt with then.
Each team is unique, and there is no single formula for success or excellence. Choosing team members The factors below are stated as if one person will be choosing the team.
Often, this is the case, but perhaps equally often, teams choose their own members, or team members participate in choosing the rest of the team as they come on board. This is, in many ways, ideal, as long as everyone understands what's important for the task and has at least a basic understanding of how a team needs to fit together. Whether you're hiring new staff people especially for a team, or choosing from among the existing staff members of an organization, there are a number of factors to consider.
Start with the best people you can find. No team is any better than its members, and finding the best people for the jobs at hand is tremendously important. Someone may be a terrific practitioner, but difficult to work with, or jealous of others' successes. It may make more sense to choose someone who's only second best although still very good at the work, but better at being a member of a team.
Choose team members so they'll have a good fit. The issue of fit was mentioned earlier, and it can't be overstressed. In order for team members to fit together well, they must connect on a number of levels. People don't necessarily need to become best friends, but they need at least to respect, and, better yet, to like one another.
They're going to be spending a lot of time together: In addition, the more people like and respect one another, the more they'll communicate, and the more loyalty they'll feel to the team and its work.
Both of these conditions add to the effectiveness of the team. As team members are chosen, therefore, it's essential to consider whether each person is likely to get along well with the others, and what she'll add to or take away from the personality of the team.
Especially in health, human service, and community work, it's important that the overall goals of everyone involved be similar. If some team members see participant empowerment as paramount, and others see participants as annoying and obstructive, there will be friction. Not only will team members disagree and perhaps work against one another, but the whole purpose of the team's work will be weakened.
It's vital, therefore, that the basic vision of the team's purpose be shared. In choosing team members, people's attitudes and general world views need to play a large role. Team members don't have to be workaholics, but they need to have similar work ethics and similar conceptions of what doing a good job means. If that 's the case, then no one will get upset because he's doing more work than others, or because one person isn't pulling his weight. Ability to use disagreement and conflict well.
Team members need to be able to disagree positively, and to use their disagreements and differences about the work to come up with better solutions. They have to be willing to voice those disagreements, because disagreement is often a wellspring for good ideas.
At the same time, they have to be able to remove such disagreements from the personal, and look at them as problems to be solved with creativity and mutual respect.
Look for members with a diversity of backgrounds and perspectives. It seems obvious that the more different frames of reference that can be brought to bear on an issue or a community, the better. Teams that are diverse in a number of ways -- background, training, culture, etc. Choosing team members with an eye for what they bring to the mix can create a more dynamic and creative group.
Look for members with a commitment to the concept of working as a team. Teamwork often requires that people put aside their individual interests in order to accomplish the team's goals. Team members need to understand just what it means to work as part of a team.
They have to be willing to compromise -- especially when they know they 're right -- and to maintain a team atmosphere of civility and mutual respect. More to the point, they have to check their egos at the door if the team is to work well. Look for team members committed the team's guiding vision.
The vision may be one that's jointly developed see belowor it may already exist before the team is formed. In either case, belief in it and a willingness to strive toward its realization are a large part of what will make a team successful in the long run.
This is the Trait Theory. A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory. People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational or Process Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this leadership guide is based.
Management verses Leadership While management and leadership have a great deal in common, such as working with people and accomplishing the goals of the organization, they do differ in their primary functions Kotter, Management's main function is to produce order and consistency through processes, such as planning, budgeting, organizing, staffing, and problem solving. While leadership's main function is to produce movement and constructive or adaptive change through processes, such as establishing direction through visioning, aligning people, motivating, and inspiring.
For more information on the differences between management and leadership see the next chapter: Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals called Emergent Leadershiprather than simply ordering people around Rowe, Thus, you get Assigned Leadership by your position and you display Emergent Leadership by influencing people to do great things.
Total Leadership What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by leaders they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. When people are deciding if they respect you as a leader, they do not think about your attributes, rather, they observe what you do so that they can determine who you really are.
They use this observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors Good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. In your employees' eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well-being.
Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence: Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy. Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives.
Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing. So in a nutshell — you must be trustworthy and you need to be able to communicate a vision of where the organization needs to go.
The next section, Principles of Leadership, ties in closely with this key concept. Principles of Leadership To help you be, know, and do, follow these eleven principles of leadership U. The rest of the chapters in this Leadership guide expand on these principles and provide tools for implementing them: Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes.
Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, as they often tend to do sooner or later — do not blame others.
Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools. Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people.
Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers - Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished - Communication is the key to this responsibility.
Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. Be loyal to the organization, perform selfless service, take personal responsibility. BE a professional who possess good character traits. KNOW the four factors of leadership — follower, leader, communication, situation. Environment Every organization has a particular work environment, which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities.
This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders. Goals, Values, and Concepts Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of actions: The goals and performance standards they establish.
The values they establish for the organization. The business and people concepts they establish. Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum, such as strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity, quality, and reliability.
Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees, customers, investors, vendors, and surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted. Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business. These goals, values, and concepts make up the organization's personality or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders.
This personality defines the roles, relationships, rewards, and rites that take place. Roles and Relationships Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any job incumbent. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that may or may not be spelled out. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior for several reasons, to include money being paid for the performance of the role, there is prestige attached to a role, and a sense of accomplishment or challenge.
Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. While some tasks are performed alone, most are carried out in relationship with others. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with, how often, and towards what end. Normally the greater the interaction, the greater the liking. This in turn leads to more frequent interactions.
In human behavior — its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with, and we tend to seek out those we like. People tend to do what they are rewarded for, and friendship is a powerful reward. Many tasks and behaviors that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationships. That is, new tasks and behaviors are expected of the present role-holder because a strong relationship was developed in the past, by either that role-holder or by a prior role-holder.
Culture and Climate Culture and climate are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization: Each organization has its own distinctive culture. It is a combination of the founders, past leadership, current leadership, crises, events, history, and size Newstrom, Davis, This results in rites: