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Ford and Forster — underwent a great change, however, when confronted with the First World War: Modernism then became marked by its more fragile, decadent tone, and if on the one hand it coincided with the experimental freeing of forms and with an increased attention to consciousness, on the other it was experienced as a reaction to the fragmentation of both culture and the psyche, the violence and the feeling of history as catastrophe that war brought about.

It was in this climate, during the post-war s, that most of the fundamental modernist books were published by Lawrence, Conrad, Joyce, T. Eliot, Forster and Woolf. However, the mood and the atmosphere of literary London would soon drastically change.

The proletarian fiction produced in this age of political and historical instability was filled with a sense of historical, political and psychological crisis, a feeling of anxiety, precariousness and chaos often expressed in gothic and nightmarish visions from which political commitment and ideological confrontation seemed initially to offer a way out. By the end of the decade, a dark and shadowy mood, brought about by the outbreak of war and the death of many writers who had shaped the previous decade, engulfed the intellectual and literary world.

By the end of the war, writers had to face a world which was geographically, politically, socially, economically and ideologically shattered; they had to confront the Holocaust, the dropping of the atomic bomb, the Cold War, and the military potential of space travel. It was then felt that the whole intellectual and political world crushed under the weight of the war had to be re-constructed, and in this now post-modern world, a world in which history was perceived as dangerous, human nature as unreliable and life as tragic, many writers felt as though mute, and those who tried to speak had to confront the inadequacy of literary humanism in front of the absurdity and the horrors of war.

After the acknowledgement of the emptiness, the absurdity and the meaninglessness of the world, existentialism exhorted writers to re-construct the word which during the war had been corrupted and robbed of its transparency, and to revalorise the sign which had become a weapon.

Indeed, as it was said about German: Use a language to conceive, organise and justify Belsen; use it to make out specifications for gas ovens; use it to dehumanise man during twelve years of calculated bestiality. Something will happen to it [ Imperceptibly at first, like the poisons of radiation sifting silently into the bone. But the cancer will begin Steiner, With modernism and postmodernism, then, reality was increasingly perceived as a construction of man and his language, as the idea of a fundamental, ultimate truth about man, the world and the universe itselfwas replaced with the notion of truth as a working hypothesis something which is able to explain a phenomenon until some other element able to change the previous theory is discovered.

It is precisely the acknowledgment of the strong complicity between language, thought and reality, that led to two of the most important movements of the twentieth century: Structuralism The structuralist and poststructuralist theories which developed during the second half of the twentieth century pushed into problematic status the very concepts of reality, culture and, as a result, translation.

With structuralism and poststructuralism, the text is thus seen as the destruction of all author-ity and origin. As a result, the truth of writing is thought to reside not in the author but in the reader. For the structuralist the meaning of each unit which composes any system a key concept in structuralism, indicating a selfcontained entity which, while adapting some of its features according to the different conditions that may arise, maintains its structure is not inherent in the unit itself, but is determined by the relation that a particular unit has with the other units of the same system.

The structuralists insisted that, just like the phoneme, a textual segment acquires a meaning only on the basis of the place it holds in the system as a whole and, in their re-working of Saussurean linguistics, they underlined how these relations can be reduced to binary oppositions. At the basis of their theory, there was indeed the concept of difference which Saussure posited as central to his linguistics.

The structuralists actually attempted to apply the linguistic model elaborated by Saussure to other areas of human experience. He was actually the first to apply Saussurean linguistics to the social sciences in an attempt to discover the deep mental structures which underlie and manifest themselves in large social structures such as kinship systems, mythology, magic, sacrifice and so on.

Just like Marxism, structuralism represented a reaction to the alienation of modern societies in an attempt to overcome the division that various sciences and technologies had imposed upon the world. Structuralism expressed a striving towards the unification of the incredible amount of new information provided by various new disciplines, and presented itself as a possible method of overcoming the compartmentalisation of particular systems in order to grasp the general structure underlining them and the general laws according to which the structure of any system works.

As appears clear from what has been said above, what various structuralists have in common is the determination to expose the strong complicity between language and power.

This was actually one of the aims of structuralism in general, which initially was concerned with exposing the coercive use various political, scientific, philosophical and religious systems have made of language throughout history in order to have their version of reality and truth recognised as natural and given.

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By trying to bring to consciousness what had been taken as natural and reveal it as a construction, structuralism fundamentally aimed at denouncing the claims these systems made to convey universal truths, warning readers not to take culture for nature, and urging them to suspect all systems and all language.

As suggested above, the starting point of structuralism whether literary or not was that language is a social system and that, conversely, every social activity whether systems of kinship, the literature produced, the clothes worn or the myths createdcould be intended as different languages or, as Barthes would call them, codes.

The meanings that cultural and social phenomena bear, in fact, make them into signs, hence — in the terms Saussure used to define the system of language — they have a social dimension and are arbitrary and conventional.

However, I think that two of the main concepts he elaborated are particularly relevant to our discussion. First of all, Jakobson posited a fundamental distinction between metaphor and metonymy, which for him correspond to the two main types of aphasia he was able to isolate and to the two figures on which various literary styles are based1. Beginning from the basic notion that any linguistic act implies the selection — along the horizontal line of the syntagmatic axis of language — of certain linguistic entities amongst many possible alternatives, and their combination — along the vertical line of the paradigmatic axis of language — into more complex linguistic entities, Jakobson recognised that the two principal types of aphasia emissive and receptive aphasia involved respectively selection and combination.

In the second type of aphasia, on the contrary, there is not a loss of entire words, but an alteration of the ability to construct propositions. This deficiency in the structuring of the context through combination was called contiguity disorder. In this 1 The application of this distinction to literary history influenced, for example, the work of David Lodge who, insustained the metaphorical nature of modernism and symbolism in opposition to the metonymic realism which links signs mainly by their associations with each other.

Whereas metaphor is impossible in the similarity disorder, metonymy is impossible in the contiguity disorder, in which the patient operates substitutions along the vertical line of metaphor. Further to this distinction, Jakobson also provided a fundamental model of communication which would become extremely influential. By analysing the fundamental factors of linguistic communications, Jakobson recognised in fact that every linguistic act involves a message which must be distinguished from the meaning and five other elements: The relationship among these elements is variable, and depending on which of these factors is given emphasis in the act of communication, the act, as we shall see in Chapter 2, is said to have a different function.

Here, the scholar argues that, historically, translation has been modelled essentially as a process of selection and substitution, that is, a metaphoric process. As such, for a long time the practice has been devalued as a mechanical activity.

It is not by chance, then, that Jakobson should directly address the issue of translation. For example, in J. In this case, too, in an attempt to lure the sky gods and make them take notice of her, Magda depicts herself as a younger woman, her figure fuller and with her legs parted. We can therefore see how relevant linguistic and translation theories might be for the analysis of postmodern novels. With structuralism, then, reality began to appear as a product of language, and the claims made by previous philosophical and scientific systems to have discovered the truth about it which implied that there existed an actual reality that could be described in an objective and unmediated way by language, 28 Chapter 1 — The Development of Language Studies understood as a transparent window on the worldwere shown to be a fraud.

In addition, by developing the concept of intertextuality3, the structuralists suggested not only that every text is basically an assemblage of fragments of preceding texts a concept that bears significantly on the literature produced during the last fifty years and on the translations we provide for all types of texts, from postmodern novels to newspaper articlesbut also that all perception of reality is filtered through preceding versions of that reality and that every new version of it is simply a reassembling of old elements a concept already implied by Oscar Wilde, who maintained that the nineteenth century was a creation of Balzac.

Peirce Further to his categorisation of signs as icon a sign which resembles its objectindex a sign which is somehow connected to its object, i. Peirce also described, inanother series of relations: We can therefore see how this theory can be applied to the same novel by J. Coetzee I briefly introduced above. Throughout this section, the author refers not only to philosophers such as Hegel and Nietzsche — whom he often quotes anonymously in order to suggest that in South African society nobody not even those people who, like Magda, try to escape strict hierarchies by strong acts of the will can escape the logic of master—slave relationships — but also to various theories 30 Chapter 1 — The Development of Language Studies elaborated by linguists and semioticians.

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In a similar way to the new science which finally abolished the old notions of absolute concepts and fundamental scientific truths and Freudian psychology which exposed the Cartesian notion of a coherent and unified subject as a myth, demonstrating how the human conscious always co-exists with, and is undermined by, the unconsciousstructuralism demystified many of the truths on which Western societies were based, exposing as culture what was once taken as nature and 31 An Introduction to Discourse Analysis and Translation Studies denouncing that what was once assumed to be the truth about reality and the human subject was in fact a text.

Chomsky The American Noam Chomsky was one of the most prominent structural linguists who, in Syntactic Structuresdeveloped his transformational grammar which, from the superficial structure of a sentence, works out the fundamental deep structure which underlies it.

It is precisely on this distinction that translation theorist and practitioner A. In his work, he therefore tries to translate not only the words, the sentences and the explicit themes of the poem, but also the principles which shape the source text, in an attempt to move from the level of literal significance to that of structural significance.

In opposition to the behaviourist school which suggested that language is simply a form of behaviour acquired by rewarding the production of correct sentencesChomsky therefore argued that language is what makes human beings human and that which provides a basis for human thought itself.

Just as Saussure mainly concentrated on the study of langue that is the language system as a wholeto the detriment of parole the actual utterances of particular individualsChomsky mainly focused on competence to the detriment of execution, in order to uncover the systems which underlie and determine language.

According to Chomsky, from birth any human being possesses the basic principles of all languages, and it will only be by exposure to a particular language that the child will determine the parameters left open by the Universal Grammar and therefore acquire one language instead of another. But precisely because of their interest in the universal structures lying beneath the most varied artefacts, in parallel to Saussure, the structuralists were not interested in the artefact itself, in so far as any artefact simply became the pretext for the investigation of the process of sense-making which they saw as characteristic of human beings as such.

Thus, the structuralists never enquired into the material conditions in which the artefact was produced. By so doing in opposition to the more traditional approach of science they rejected the notion of causality in favour of what we could refer to as laws of transformation, that is the fact that one structure analysed in synchronic terms may be seen to be transformed into another structure equally analysed in synchronic termseven though the actual process of transformation is not actually considered.

Structuralism was initially concerned with exposing the coercive use which various systems whether political, scientific, philosophical or religious have made of language throughout history in order to have their version of reality and truth recognised as natural and given. By trying to bring to consciousness what had been taken as natural and reveal it as a construction, structuralism fundamentally aimed at denouncing the claims these systems made to convey universal truths, 34 Chapter 1 — The Development of Language Studies warning readers not to take culture for nature, or text for truth.

In their attempt to make readers understand the conventions at work in all institutions, the structuralists revealed that language is never innocent. As Barthes would acknowledge in his Mythologies — and as we shall see in the following chapters of this book — language is always reduced to a sort of propaganda, always used to sell something, whether an idea as in political discourse and, in a more insidious way, in the supposedly objective language of sciencea feeling as in a declaration of lovea product as in advertisementsor a whole person as when we try to be accepted and recognised by others.

For this reason, it may be appropriate to see structuralism in the context of a series of theories which tried to clarify the role played by the reader in the consumption of literature, and although not all the authors I will briefly discuss in this section cannot be considered structuralists, it is important to refer, if only superficially, to the fact that with the end of the New Criticism, the position of the reader has increasingly become the focus of various theorists.

Translators are, first of all, readers, and it is therefore important to understand the way in which, as readers, we receive literary and other texts. As will become clearer later, Barthes had an enormous influence on many different disciplines, ranging from semiotics to cultural studies and translation studies.

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It is therefore important to assimilate some of his basic theories, which would orientate intellectual productions of various kinds for years to come. Barthes, like various authors mentioned in this chapter, eventually abandoned his initially rigorous structuralism in order to become a champion of what would later be called poststructuralism, and this clearly makes it difficult to decide under which heading his works should be presented.

In reality, the various authors who are said to belong to the structuralist community are in fact quite autonomous from one another, and are characterised by their differences, rather than their similarities. However, while respecting and emphasising the individuality and originality of the various theorists approached, we cannot forget that most of the French representatives of structuralism intellectually developed in the same historical and cultural environment: Because they began to publish and achieve popularity more or less during the same years, it is at times difficult to determine which theory influenced which, but it is certain that in those years the cultural debate was very much alive, and the continuous meetings and discussions amongst these intellectuals stimulated the growth and the development of new ideas.

The categorisation of authors such as Barthes into structuralist or poststructuralist is therefore always problematic4. On this subject, see for example Sturrock, J.

Barthes, London, Fontana Press. At first sight this is true of any discourse, but each discourse has its own kind of summary.

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By contrast the summary of a narrative if conducted according to structural criteria preserves the individuality of the message; narrative, in other words, is translatable without fundamental damage. What is untranslatable is determined only at the last, narrational, level. The signifiers of narrativity, for instance, are not readily transferable from novel to film, the latter utilising the personal mode of treatment only very exceptionally; while the last layer of the narrational level, namely the writing, resist transference from one language to another or transfers very badly.

The translatability of narrative is a result of the structure of its language, so that it would be possible, proceeding in reverse, to determine this structure by identifying and classifying the varyingly translatable and untranslatable elements of a narrative— On the contrary, other works are much more ambiguous. Such a text may be seen as a work of transition in which Barthes, while re-proposing some of the structuralist ideas he had already approached in previous texts, develops them into what should now be seen as the initial stage of his poststructuralist theorisation of the relationship between texts and readers.

This concept is obviously closely connected to the general rejection of the notion of subject the structuralists enacted by postulating that the possibility of meaning is determined by unconscious rules which, amongst other consequences, strongly affect the role of the author. According to Barthes it is in fact the reader who provides the unity of the text, not its author. The initial aim of literary structuralism was therefore the study of the relationship between the system of literature and the culture to which it belongs.

Literary structuralism was therefore less concerned with the interpretation of a work, that is with the study of literature, than with the investigation of literariness5 and the definition of a poetics or a model of the literary system which, by using the scientific methods of modern linguistics, would give literary studies a scientific basis.

I, 40where he opposed classical criticism with a new, scientific kind of approach to the literary work and first introduced the notion of the death of the author. That was the deal. Cover me with gold. The queen gave Getafix Your Majesty is too good, by Belenos Otis also gave the palace a modern touch. What's this little chamber for? We chose that name when we noticed Oh it tickles when it stops. I want to explore every room of this miracle with you. The palace is huge, Caesar. It consists of rooms.

It could take a while. What do you think Cleopatra and Sesam are doing? As an exception to the rule Those big shrimps are nice. And the guy says: His name is O and comes from Phara. It's O from Phara. The guy's name is O. He says he's from Phara. You have a lovely moustache. You just let it grow. You know how to please a woman. That's a local custom. It's a private party. I've got a list. There must be a problem, because We're with two, four, six, eight.

I have to be on that list. How do you spell your name? Why didn't you say so? I'll see you inside.

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Have a good time. Can you look for Julius? I don't know, but I know There's one of my amphorae inside. At the queen's table. Is it in Alexandria or at Alexandria? Because in the south of Gaul there's a city called Avignon. There's a beautiful bridge. And people say "at Avignon".

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